V1 User225314 声望 2 2019-12-09 23:32:47 上传
Analysis of Claims that the Brain Extracellular Impedance Is High and Non-resistive
Abstract Numerous measurements in the brain of the impedance between two extracellular electrodes have shown that it is approximately resistive in the range of biological interest, <10 kHz, and has a value close to that expected from the conductivity of physiological saline and the extracellular volume fraction in brain tissue. Recent work from Gomes et al. has claimed that the impedance of the extracellular space is some three orders of magnitude greater than these values and also displays a 1/f frequency dependence (above a low-frequency corner frequency). Their measurements were performed between an intracellular electrode and an extracellular electrode. It is argued that they incorrectly extracted the extracellular impedance because of an inaccurate representation of the large confounding impedance of the neuronal membrane. In conclusion, no compelling evidence has been provided to undermine the well-established and physically plausible consensus that the brain extracellular impedance is low and approximately resistive.
V1 love-简爱 声望 2 化工 2019-12-09 23:17:17 上传
Molecular Mechanisms of the R61T Mutation in Apolipoprotein E4: A Dynamic Rescue
Abstract The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). With respect to the other common isoforms of this protein (ApoE2 and ApoE3), ApoE4 is characterized by lower stability that underlies the formation of a stable interaction between the protein’s N- and C-terminal domains. AD-related cellular dysfunctions have been linked to this ApoE4 misfolded state. In this regard, it has been reported that the mutation R61T is able to rescue the deleterious cellular effects of ApoE4 by preventing the formation of the misfolded intermediate state. However, a clear description of the structural features at the basis of the R61T-ApoE4 mutant’s protective effect is still missing. Recently, using extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified a structural model of an ApoE4 misfolded intermediate state. Building on our previous work, here we explore the dynamical changes induced by the R61T mutation in the ApoE4 native and misfolded states. Notably, we do not observe any local changes in the domains in the R61T-ApoE4 system, rather a general loss of correlated movements in the entire protein structure. More specifically, we detect increased dynamics in the hinge region, which is essential for ApoE4 domain-domain interaction. Consistent with previously reported data on altered phospholipid and receptor binding, we hypothesize that mutations destabilizing the ApoE4 intermediate state change hinge region dynamics, which propagates to distal functional regions of the protein and modifies ApoE4’s functional properties. This unique behavior of the ApoE4 hinge region provides, to our knowledge, a novel understanding of ApoE4’s role in AD.
V1 简浅 声望 1 动物资源科学 2019-12-09 23:16:33 上传
PIP Water Transport and Its pH Dependence Are Regulated by Tetramer Stoichiometry
Abstract Many plasma membrane channels form oligomeric assemblies, and heterooligomerization has been described as a distinctive feature of some protein families. In the particular case of plant plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs), PIP1 and PIP2 monomers interact to form heterotetramers. However, the biological properties of the different heterotetrameric configurations formed by PIP1 and PIP2 subunits have not been addressed yet. Upon coexpression of tandem PIP2-PIP1 dimers in Xenopus oocytes, we can address, for the first time to our knowledge, the functional properties of single heterotetrameric species having 2:2 stoichiometry. We have also coexpressed PIP2-PIP1 dimers with PIP1 and PIP2 monomers to experimentally investigate the localization and biological activity of each tetrameric assembly. Our results show that PIP2-PIP1 heterotetramers can assemble with 3:1, 1:3, or 2:2 stoichiometry, depending on PIP1 and PIP2 relative expression in the cell. All PIP2-PIP1 heterotetrameric species localize at the plasma membrane and present the same water transport capacity. Furthermore, the contribution of any heterotetrameric assembly to the total water transport through the plasma membrane doubles the contribution of PIP2 homotetramers. Our results also indicate that plasma membrane water transport can be modulated by the coexistence of different tetrameric species and by intracellular pH. Moreover, all the tetrameric species present similar cooperativity behavior for proton sensing. These findings throw light on the functional properties of PIP tetramers, showing that they have flexible stoichiometry dependent on the quantity of PIP1 and PIP2 molecules available. This represents, to our knowledge, a novel regulatory mechanism to adjust water transport across the plasma membrane.
V2 Armon 声望 1 生物信息学 2019-12-09 22:55:51 上传
Flavin Binding to the Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrC: Insights from Computational Molecular Simulation
Abstract Certain dissimilatory bacteria have the remarkable ability to use extracellular metal oxide minerals instead of oxygen as terminal electron sinks, using a process known as “extracellular respiration”. Specialized multiheme cytochromes located on the outer membrane of the microbe were shown to be crucial for electron transfer from the cell surface to the mineral. This process is facilitated by soluble, biogenic flavins secreted by the organism for the purpose of acting as an electron shuttle. However, their interactions with the outer-membrane cytochromes are not established on a molecular scale. Here, we study the interaction between the outer-membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis and flavin mononucleotide (FMN in fully oxidized quinone form) using computational docking. We find that interaction of FMN with MtrC is significantly weaker than with known FMN-binding proteins, but identify a mildly preferred interaction site close to heme 2 with a dissociation constant (Kd) = 490 μM, in good agreement with recent experimental estimates, Kd = 255 μM. The weak interaction with MtrC can be qualitatively explained by the smaller number of hydrogen bonds that the planar headgroup of FMN can form with this protein compared to FMN-binding proteins. Molecular dynamics simulation gives indications for a possible conformational switch upon cleavage of the disulphide bond of MtrC, but without concomitant increase in binding affinities according to this docking study. Overall, our results suggest that binding of FMN to MtrC is reversible and not highly specific, which may be consistent with a role as redox shuttle that facilitates extracellular respiration.
V2 怀 声望 19 2019-12-09 22:30:48 上传
Methyl-CpG/MBD2 Interaction Requires Minimum Separation and Exhibits Minimal Sequence Specificity
Abstract Determining the pattern of methylation at CpG dinucleotides in a cell remains an essential component of epigenetic profiling. The correlations among methylation, gene expression, and accompanying disease have just begun to be explored. Many experiments for sensing methylation use a relatively inexpensive, high-throughput approach with a methyl-binding domain (MBD) protein that preferentially binds to methylated CpGs. Here, we characterize the cooperativity and sequence specificity of MBD2-DNA binding in a pulldown experiment revealing three potential biases in such experiments. The first is caused by steric clashes between two MBD2 proteins at mCpGs separated by 2 bp or less, which suggests that simultaneous binding at these sites is inhibited. This is confirmed by comparing input versus pulldown high-throughput sequencing data on M.SssI-treated samples, from which we also find that pulldown efficiency sharply increases for DNA fragments with four or more mCpGs. Analysis of these two data sets was again employed to investigate MBD2’s sequence preferences surrounding a methylated CpG (mCpG). In comparing the distributions of bases at positions with respect to an mCpG, statistically significant preferences for certain bases were found, although the corresponding biases in pulldown efficiency were all <5%. While this suggests that mCpG sequence context can mostly be ignored in MBD2 binding, the statistical certainty exhibited by our high-throughput approach bodes well for future applications.
V2 先生 声望 10 2019-12-09 21:38:40 上传
Multiscale Determinants of Delayed Afterdepolarization Amplitude in Cardiac Tissue
Abstract Spontaneous calcium (Ca) waves in cardiac myocytes underlie delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) that trigger cardiac arrhythmias. How these subcellular/cellular events overcome source-sink factors in cardiac tissue to generate DADs of sufficient amplitude to trigger action potentials is not fully understood. Here, we evaluate quantitatively how factors at the subcellular scale (number of Ca wave initiation sites), cellular scale (sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load), and tissue scale (synchrony of Ca release in populations of myocytes) determine DAD features in cardiac tissue using a combined experimental and computational modeling approach. Isolated patch-clamped rabbit ventricular myocytes loaded with Fluo-4 to image intracellular Ca were rapidly paced during exposure to elevated extracellular Ca (2.7 mmol/L) and isoproterenol (0.25 μmol/L) to induce diastolic Ca waves and subthreshold DADs. As the number of paced beats increased from 1 to 5, SR Ca content (assessed with caffeine pulses) increased, the number of Ca wave initiation sites increased, integrated Ca transients and DADs became larger and shorter in duration, and the latency period to the onset of Ca waves shortened with reduced variance. In silico analysis using a computer model of ventricular tissue incorporating these experimental measurements revealed that whereas all of these factors promoted larger DADs with higher probability of generating triggered activity, the latency period variance and SR Ca load had the greatest influences. Therefore, incorporating quantitative experimental data into tissue level simulations reveals that increased intracellular Ca promotes DAD-mediated triggered activity in tissue predominantly by increasing both the synchrony (decreasing latency variance) of Ca waves in nearby myocytes and SR Ca load, whereas the number of Ca wave initiation sites per myocyte is less important.
V2 王亚玲 声望 9 生物信息学 2019-12-09 21:35:22 上传
Plasma Membrane Organization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Resting and Ligand-Bound States
Abstract The spatial arrangement of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cellular plasma membrane is one of the prime factors that control its downstream signaling pathways and related functions. However, the molecular organization, which spans the scale from nanometers to micrometer-size clusters, has not been resolved in detail, mainly due to a lack of techniques with the required spatiotemporal resolution. Therefore, we used imaging total internal reflection-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to investigate EGFR dynamics on live CHO-K1 plasma membranes in resting and ligand-bound states. In combination with the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy diffusion law, this provides information on the subresolution organization of EGFR on cell membranes. We found that overall EGFR organization is sensitive to both cholesterol and the actin cytoskeleton. EGFR in the resting state is partly trapped in cholesterol-containing domains, whereas another fraction exhibits cholesterol independent trapping on the membrane. Disruption of the cytoskeleton leads to a broader range of EGFR diffusion coefficients and a reduction of hop diffusion. In the ligand-bound state we found a dose-dependent behavior. At 10 ng/mL EGF the EGFR is endocytosed and recycled to the membrane, whereas diffusion and organization do not change significantly. At 100 ng/mL EGF the EGFR forms clusters, which are subsequently internalized, whereas outside the clusters diffusivity increases and the organization of the receptor remains unchanged. After disruption of cholesterol-containing domains or actin cytoskeleton, EGF induces microscopic EGFR clusters on the membrane and endocytosis is inhibited.
V2 旸晓昆 声望 9 生物化学与分子生物学 2019-12-09 21:23:56 上传
Monitoring Unfolding of Titin I27 Single and Bi Domain with High-Pressure NMR Spectroscopy
Abstract A complete description of the pathways and mechanisms of protein folding requires a detailed structural and energetic characterization of the folding energy landscape. Simulations, when corroborated by experimental data yielding global information on the folding process, can provide this level of insight. Molecular dynamics (MD) has often been combined with force spectroscopy experiments to decipher the unfolding mechanism of titin immunoglobulin-like single or multidomain, the giant multimodular protein from sarcomeres, yielding information on the sequential events during titin unfolding under stretching. Here, we used high-pressure NMR to monitor the unfolding of titin I27 Ig-like single domain and tandem. Because this method brings residue-specific information on the folding process, it can provide quasiatomic details on this process without the help of MD simulations. Globally, the results of our high-pressure analysis are in agreement with previous results obtained by the combination of experimental measurements and MD simulation and/or protein engineering, although the intermediate folding state caused by the early detachment of the AB β-sheet, often reported in previous works based on MD or force spectroscopy, cannot be detected. On the other hand, the A′G parallel β-sheet of the β-sandwich has been confirmed as the Achilles heel of the three-dimensional scaffold: its disruption yields complete unfolding with very similar characteristics (free energy, unfolding volume, kinetics rate constants) for the two constructs.
V1 弘丹 声望 1 动物资源科学 2019-12-09 21:05:01 上传
Population-Dynamic Modeling of Bacterial Horizontal Gene Transfer by Natural Transformation
Abstract Natural transformation is a major mechanism of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and plays an essential role in bacterial adaptation, evolution, and speciation. Although its molecular underpinnings have been increasingly revealed, natural transformation is not well characterized in terms of its quantitative ecological roles. Here, by using Neisseria gonorrhoeae as an example, we developed a population-dynamic model for natural transformation and analyzed its dynamic characteristics with nonlinear tools and simulations. Our study showed that bacteria capable of natural transformation can display distinct population behaviors ranging from extinction to coexistence and to bistability, depending on their HGT rate and selection coefficient. With the model, we also illustrated the roles of environmental DNA sources—active secretion and passive release—in impacting population dynamics. Additionally, by constructing and utilizing a stochastic version of the model, we examined how noise shapes the steady and dynamic behaviors of the system. Notably, we found that distinct waiting time statistics for HGT events, namely a power-law distribution, an exponential distribution, and a mix of the both, are associated with the dynamics in the regimes of extinction, coexistence, and bistability accordingly. This work offers a quantitative illustration of natural transformation by revealing its complex population dynamics and associated characteristics, therefore advancing our ecological understanding of natural transformation as well as HGT in general.
V1 卢骁 声望 1 生物安全 2019-12-09 20:49:50 上传
Cholesterol Increases the Openness of SNARE-Mediated Flickering Fusion Pores
Abstract Flickering of fusion pores during exocytotic release of hormones and neurotransmitters is well documented, but without assays that use biochemically defined components and measure single-pore dynamics, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to quantify fusion-pore dynamics in vitro and to separate the roles of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins and lipid bilayer properties. When small unilamellar vesicles bearing neuronal v-SNAREs fused with planar bilayers reconstituted with cognate t-SNARES, lipid and soluble cargo transfer rates were severely reduced, suggesting that pores flickered. From the lipid release times we computed pore openness, the fraction of time the pore is open, which increased dramatically with cholesterol. For most lipid compositions tested, SNARE-mediated and nonspecifically nucleated pores had similar openness, suggesting that pore flickering was controlled by lipid bilayer properties. However, with physiological cholesterol levels, SNAREs substantially increased the fraction of fully open pores and fusion was so accelerated that there was insufficient time to recruit t-SNAREs to the fusion site, consistent with t-SNAREs being preclustered by cholesterol into functional docking and fusion platforms. Our results suggest that cholesterol opens pores directly by reducing the fusion-pore bending energy, and indirectly by concentrating several SNAREs into individual fusion events.