V3 守望黑夜 声望 28 2023-06-07 13:22:55 上传
MicroRNA-410 promotes cell proliferation by targeting BRD7 in non-small cell lung cancer
Abstract miR-410 acts as an oncogene or tumor suppressor gene in some malignancies. However, its role in NSCLC is still unknown. In this study, we showed that the expression of miR-410 was up-regulated in both human NSCLC tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-410 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC. In addition, bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) was a direct target of miR-410. MiR-410-mediated downregulation of BRD7 led to increase Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of Akt phosphorylation can rescue the effect of miR-410 on NSCLC cell. The expression of BRD7 was downregulated in NSCLC and was inversely expressed with miR-410 in NSCLC. Our data provided new knowledge regarding the role of miR-410 in the lung cancer progression.
V6 刘玉玲 声望 100 生物 2023-06-07 12:57:44 上传
Mechanical Coupling Between Muscle-Tendon Units Reduces Peak Stresses
The presence of mechanical linkages between synergistic muscles and their common tendons may distribute forces among the involved structures. We review studies, using humans and other animals, examining muscle and tendon interactions and discuss the hypothesis that connections between muscle bellies and within tendons may serve as a mechanism to distribute forces and mitigate peak stresses.
V2 Balder 声望 22 生物化学与分子生物学 2023-06-07 12:55:08 上传
Unconventional Bladder Preservation: Factors Predicting Failure to Receive Definitive Surgery following Chemotherapy for Nonmetastatic Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer in the National Cancer Database
Purpose Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an important adjunct to cystectomy for managing muscle invasive bladder cancer. Using the National Cancer Database we investigated factors that predict failure to undergo surgery following multi-agent chemotherapy for nonmetastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods We performed a cohort study in patients diagnosed with cT2-4aN0M0 urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder between 2004 and 2013 who underwent multi-agent chemotherapy. We excluded those with surgery prior to chemotherapy, clinical T4b disease and those who received radiotherapy. Socioeconomic and clinical predictors, including time from diagnosis to treatment, were analyzed using logistic regression for the receipt of surgery after chemotherapy. Cox proportional hazards modeling was applied to perform time dependent analysis. Results Of the 4,640 patients who met our study inclusion and exclusion criteria 4,244 (91%) proceeded to surgery. Negative predictors of surgery included African American or Hispanic race (OR 0.58, p = 0.007 and 0.48, p = 0.002, respectively), increasing age (OR 0.44, p <0.001) and greater time between diagnosis and chemotherapy initiation (fourth quartile greater than 59 days, OR 0.51, p <0.001). African American race (HR 0.79, p <0.001), Medicare (HR 0.86, p <0.001) and other government insurance (HR 0.73, p <0.001) were associated with delayed chemotherapy. Conclusions Increasing age, African American or Hispanic race and longer time to chemotherapy predicted failure to undergo surgery. Furthermore, African American race was associated with delayed chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was also delayed in patients on Medicare or other government insurance. Longer time to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a modifiable risk factor that should be closely observed in multimodal cancer treatment.
V4 唐走鱼尾纹 声望 47 生物系 2023-06-07 12:49:05 上传
Tumor-derived exosomes antagonize innate antiviral immunity
Malignancies can compromise innate immunity, but the mechanisms of this are largely unknown. Here we found that, via tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs), cancers were able to transfer activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to host macrophages and thereby suppress innate antiviral immunity. Screening of the human kinome identified the kinase MEKK2 in macrophages as an effector of TEX-delivered EGFR that negatively regulated the antiviral immune response. In the context of experimental tumor implantation, MEKK2-deficient mice were more resistant to viral infection than were wild-type mice. Injection of TEXs into mice reduced innate immunity, increased viral load and increased morbidity in an EGFR- and MEKK2-dependent manner. MEKK2 phosphorylated IRF3, a transcription factor crucial for the production of type I interferons; this triggered poly-ubiquitination of IRF3 and blocked its dimerization, translocation to the nucleus and transcriptional activity after viral infection. These findings identify a mechanism by which cancer cells can dampen host innate immunity and potentially cause patients with cancer to become immunocompromised.
V2 蓝钥匙 声望 9 生物化学与分子生物学 2023-06-07 12:39:44 上传
Is initial excision of cutaneous melanoma by General Practitioners (GPs) dangerous? Comparing patient outcomes following excision of melanoma by GPs or in hospital using national datasets and meta-analysis
Abstract Background Melanomas are initially excised in primary care, and rates vary internationally. Until now, there has been no strong evidence one way or the other that excising melanomas in primary care is safe or unsafe. European guidelines make no recommendations, and the United Kingdom (UK) melanoma guidelines require all suspicious skin lesions to be initially treated in secondary care based on an expert consensus, which lacks supporting evidence, that primary care excision represents substandard care. Despite this, studies have found that up to 20% of melanomas in the UK are excised by general practitioners (GPs). Patients receiving primary care melanoma excision may fear that their care is substandard and their long-term survival threatened, neither of which may be justified. Methods Scottish cancer registry data from 9367 people diagnosed with melanoma in Scotland between 2005 and 2013 were linked to pathology records, hospital data and death records. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusting for key confounders, explored the association between morbidity and mortality and setting of primary melanoma excision (primary versus secondary care). A pooled estimate of the relative hazard of death of having a melanoma excised in primary versus secondary care including 7116 patients from a similar Irish study was also performed. Results The adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of death from melanoma for those having primary care excision was 0.82 (0.61–1.10). Those receiving primary care excision had a median (IQR) of 8 (3–14) out-patient attendances compared to 10 (4–17) for the secondary care group with an adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) of 0.98 (0.96–1.01). Both groups had a median of 1 (0–2) hospital admissions with an adjusted rate ratio of 1.05 (0.98–1.13). In the meta-analysis, with primary care as the reference, the pooled adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 95% CI) was 1.26 (1.07–1.50) indicating a significantly higher all-cause mortality among those with excision in secondary care. Conclusions The results of the Scottish and pooled analyses suggest that those receiving an initial excision for melanoma in primary care do not have poorer survival or increased morbidity compared to those being initially treated in secondary care. A randomised controlled trial to inform a greater role for GPs in the initial excision of melanoma is justified in the light of these results.
V2 听说 声望 10 2023-06-07 12:36:12 上传
Use of complementary and alternative medicine: A multicenter cross-sectional study in 1089 melanoma patients
Abstract Background About half of patients with cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). So far, data on melanoma patients are missing. Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors for the use of CAM in this patient group. Methods All patients with melanoma being attended at one of 7 skin cancer centres in Germany between March 2012 and March 2013 were invited to take part in a survey using a structured questionnaire on CAM. The physicians filled in a second part on the diagnosis, state and former and current therapy. Results Nearly half of the 1089 participants (41.0%) used CAM and half of those using CAM (56.8%) marked that this made them feel better. Biological-based CAMs which consists of substances taken were used by 25.9% of all patients (63.1% of those using CAM). Predictors of CAM use were education, psychological support, interest in CAM and previous CAM use. CAM users show higher physical activity, more often use psychosocial help and have contact with a self-help group. Family and friends (41.0%) as well as print media (41.7%) are the main sources of information. Most important reasons to use CAM are to strengthen one's own forces (57.7%) or the immune system (63.4%) and to be able to do something for oneself (53.7%). Conclusion Communication on CAM should become a regular topic in counselling melanoma patients. To increase safety, patients and physicians must have access to evidence-based information on these methods and their interactions with modern cancer treatments.
V2 Alinda 声望 9 生理学与生物物理学 2023-06-07 12:27:39 上传
Value of Intact Prostate Specific Antigen and Human Kallikrein 2 in the 4 Kallikrein Predictive Model: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis
Purpose The 4 kallikrein panel, commercially available as the 4Kscore®, is a statistical model that has been shown to accurately predict Gleason Grade Group 2 or greater (high grade) cancer on biopsy and the long-term risk of distant prostate cancer metastases. The panel includes 2 novel markers, namely intact prostate specific antigen and hK2. It has been questioned whether these 2 additional markers add discrimination to the clinical predictors of patient age, digital rectal examination and prior biopsy, and the established molecular markers total and free prostate specific antigen. Materials and Methods We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of published studies in which the 4 kallikrein panel was measured in men undergoing prostate biopsy. We assess the improvement in discrimination associated with including intact prostate specific antigen and hK2 along with total and free prostate specific antigen in the statistical model. Results Included in analysis were 14,510 men from a total of 10 studies. The fixed effects meta-analytical estimate of the discrimination of the model without intact prostate specific antigen and hK2 was 0.742 (95% CI 0.727–0.756) compared to 0.813 (95% CI 0.801–0.825) for the full kallikrein model. The 95% CIs did not overlap and the difference in discrimination was highly statistically significant (0.069, 95% CI 0.057–0.080, p <0.0001). Intact prostate specific antigen (increase in discrimination 0.059, 95% CI 0.050–0.069) and hK2 (increase in discrimination 0.024, 95% CI 0.020–0.029, each p <0.0001) added independently to the model. Conclusions The clinical value of the panel could not be replicated using data readily available to urologists without measuring intact prostate specific antigen and hK2.
V1 Baptist 声望 2 遗传学和遗传工程系 2023-06-07 11:57:01 上传
Effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir, or Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir and Dasabuvir Regimens for Treatment of Patients With Hepatitis C in the Veterans Affairs National Health Care System
Background & Aims We investigated the real-world effectiveness of sofosbuvir, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, and paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) in treatment of different subgroups of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 4. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 17,487 patients with HCV infection (13,974 with HCV genotype 1; 2131 with genotype 2; 1237 with genotype 3; and 135 with genotype 4) who began treatment with sofosbuvir (n = 2986), ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (n = 11,327), or PrOD (n = 3174), with or without ribavirin, from January 1, 2014 through June 20, 2015 in the Veterans Affairs health care system. Data through April 15, 2016 were analyzed to assess completion of treatments and sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12). Mean age of patients was 61 ± 7 years, 97% were male, 52% were non-Hispanic white, 29% were non-Hispanic black, 32% had a diagnosis of cirrhosis (9.9% with decompensated cirrhosis), 36% had a Fibrosis-4 index score >3.25 (indicator of cirrhosis), and 29% had received prior antiviral treatment. Results An SVR12 was achieved by 92.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.3%–93.2%) of subjects with HCV genotype 1 infection (no significant difference between ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and PrOD regimens), 86.2% (95% CI, 84.6%–87.7%) of those with genotype 2 infection (treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin), 74.8% (95% CI, 72.2%–77.3%) of those with genotype 3 infection (77.9% in patients given ledipasvir/sofosbuvir plus ribavirin, 87.0% in patients given sofosbuvir and pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin, and 70.6% of patients given sofosbuvir plus ribavirin), and 89.6% (95% CI 82.8%–93.9%) of those with genotype 4 infection. Among patients with cirrhosis, 90.6% of patients with HCV genotype 1, 77.3% with HCV genotype 2, 65.7% with HCV genotype 3, and 83.9% with HCV genotype 4 achieved an SVR12. Among previously treated patients, 92.6% with genotype 1; 80.2% with genotype 2; 69.2% with genotype 3; and 93.5% with genotype 4 achieved SVR12. Among treatment-naive patients, 92.8% with genotype 1; 88.0% with genotype 2; 77.5% with genotype 3; and 88.3% with genotype 4 achieved SVR12. Eight-week regimens of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir produced an SVR12 in 94.3% of eligible patients with HCV genotype 1 infection; this regimen was underused. Conclusions High proportions of patients with HCV infections genotypes 1–4 (ranging from 75% to 93%) in the Veterans Affairs national health care system achieved SVR12, approaching the results reported in clinical trials, especially in patients with genotype 1 infection. An 8-week regimen of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir is effective for eligible patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and could reduce costs. There is substantial room for improvement in SVRs among persons with cirrhosis and genotype 2 or 3 infections.
V5 李雪 声望 97 临床医学 2023-06-07 11:51:01 上传
Cancer statistics, 2018
Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data, available through 2014, were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data, available through 2015, were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2018, 1,735,350 new cancer cases and 609,640 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Over the past decade of data, the cancer incidence rate (2005-2014) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2006-2015) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. The combined cancer death rate dropped continuously from 1991 to 2015 by a total of 26%, translating to approximately 2,378,600 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Of the 10 leading causes of death, only cancer declined from 2014 to 2015. In 2015, the cancer death rate was 14% higher in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) overall (death rate ratio [DRR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13-1.15), but the racial disparity was much larger for individuals aged <65 years (DRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.29-1.32) compared with those aged ≥65 years (DRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.09) and varied substantially by state. For example, the cancer death rate was lower in NHBs than NHWs in Massachusetts for all ages and in New York for individuals aged ≥65 years, whereas for those aged <65 years, it was 3 times higher in NHBs in the District of Columbia (DRR, 2.89; 95% CI, 2.16-3.91) and about 50% higher in Wisconsin (DRR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.56-2.02), Kansas (DRR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.25-1.81), Louisiana (DRR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.38-1.60), Illinois (DRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.39-1.57), and California (DRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.38-1.54). Larger racial inequalities in young and middle-aged adults probably partly reflect less access to high-quality health care. CA Cancer J Clin 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
V1 后声 声望 1 生理学与生物物理学 2023-06-07 11:48:00 上传
Validation of a DNA Methylation-Mutation Urine Assay to Select Patients with Hematuria for Cystoscopy
Purpose Only 3% to 28% of patients referred to the urology clinic for hematuria are diagnosed with bladder cancer. Cystoscopy leads to high diagnostic costs and a high patient burden. Therefore, to improve the selection of patients for cystoscopy and reduce costs and over testing we aimed to validate a recently developed diagnostic urine assay. Materials and Methods Included in study were 200 patients from a total of 3 European countries who underwent cystoscopy for hematuria, including 97 with bladder cancer and 103 with nonmalignant findings. Voided urine samples were collected prior to cystoscopy. DNA was extracted and analyzed for mutations in FGFR3, TERT and HRAS, and methylation of OTX1, ONECUT2 and TWIST1. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between predictor variables and bladder cancer. Results Combining the methylation and mutation markers with age led to an AUC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.92–0.99) with 93% sensitivity and 86% specificity, and an optimism corrected AUC of 0.95. The AUC was higher for T1 or greater tumors compared to Ta tumors (0.99 vs 0.93). The AUC was also higher for high grade tumors compared to low grade tumors (1.00 vs 0.93). Overall negative predictive value was 99% based on the 5% to 10% prevalence of bladder cancer in patients with hematuria. This would lead to a 77% reduction in diagnostic cystoscopy. Conclusions Analyzing hematuria patients for the risk of bladder cancer using novel molecular markers may lead to a reduction in diagnostic cystoscopy. Combining methylation analysis (OTX1, ONECUT2 and TWIST1) with mutation analysis (FGFR3, TERT and HRAS) and patient age resulted in a validated accurate prediction model.