V1 肖宛书 声望 1 生物科学 2020-01-26 23:04:21 上传
Prognostic Value of SETD2 Expression in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Purpose Mutations of SETD2 occur in 3% to 16% of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases. Previous studies identified an association between SETD2 mutation and prognosis of patients with nonmetastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In this study we explored the prognostic and predictive value of SETD2 expression in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with targeted therapy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively enrolled 138 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib or sorafenib at a single institution from 2007 to 2014. SETD2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Results After excluding those patients with loss of followup or unavailable tissue samples, 111 were included in the study. Low SETD2 expression was associated with reduced overall survival (p <0.001) and progression-free survival (p=0.001). After adjustment for histological type, Heng risk group and drugs used for targeted therapy, SETD2 was defined as an independent prognostic marker for overall survival (HR 2.535 [95% CI 1.429–4.497], p=0.001) and progression-free survival (HR 1.755 [95% CI 1.031–2.988], p=0.038). Its prognostic value for overall survival was more predominant in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (p <0.001) or patients in the intermediate risk group of Heng risk criteria (p <0.001), while its predictive value for progression-free survival was more predominant in patients treated with sorafenib (p <0.001). SETD2 could also be combined with the Heng risk model for better overall survival prediction. Conclusions SETD2 is a potential prognostic biomarker for overall survival and progression-free survival prediction in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving targeted therapy. However, it remains to be seen whether this is generalizable to other ethnicities and prospective external validation is required.
V1 李闯 声望 1 生物科学与技术系 2020-01-26 22:51:38 上传
The roles of peripheral serotonin in metabolic homeostasis
Abstract Metabolic homeostasis in the organism is assured both by the nervous system and by hormones. Among a plethora of hormones regulating metabolism, serotonin presents a number of unique features. Unlike classical hormones serotonin is produced in different anatomical locations. In brain it acts as a neurotransmitter and in the periphery it can act as a hormone, auto- and/or paracrine factor, or intracellular signaling molecule. Serotonin does not cross the blood–brain barrier; therefore the two major pools of this bioamine remain separated. Although 95% of serotonin is produced in the periphery, its functions have been ignored until recently. Here we review the impact of the peripheral serotonin on the regulation of function of the organs involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis.
V1 Bethany 声望 1 生物信息技术 2020-01-26 22:42:55 上传
SMIM1 is a type II transmembrane phosphoprotein and displays the Vel blood group antigen at its carboxyl-terminus
Abstract Disruption of SMIM1, encoding small integral membrane protein 1, is responsible for the Vel-negative blood type, a rare but clinically-important blood type. However, the exact nature of the Vel antigen and how it is presented by SMIM1 are poorly understood. Using mass spectrometry we found several sites of phosphorylation in the N-terminal region of SMIM1 and we found the initiating methionine of SMIM1 to be acetylated. Flow cytometry analyses of human erythroleukemia cells expressing N- or C-terminally Flag-tagged SMIM1, several point mutants of SMIM1, and a chimeric molecule between Kell and SMIM1 demonstrated that SMIM1 carries the Vel antigen as a type II membrane protein with a predicted C-terminal extracellular domain of only 3–12 amino acids.
V1 李永超 声望 1 植物生物技术 2020-01-26 22:42:06 上传
High-resolution structures of the d-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp) DltC from Bacillus subtilis reveal equivalent conformations of apo- and holo-forms
Abstract d-Alanylation of lipoteichoic acids plays an important role in modulating the properties of Gram-positive bacteria cell walls. The d-alanyl carrier protein DltC from Bacillus subtilis has been solved in apo- and two cofactor-modified holo-forms, whereby the entire phosphopantetheine moiety is defined in one. The atomic resolution of the apo-structure allows delineation of alternative conformations within the hydrophobic core of the 78 residue four helix bundle. In contrast to previous reports for a peptidyl carrier protein from a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, no obvious structural differences between apo- and holo-DltC forms are observed. Solution NMR spectroscopy confirms these findings and demonstrates in addition that the two forms exhibit similar backbone dynamics on the ps–ns and ms timescales.
V2 秦冲达 声望 9 生物科学与生物技术 2020-01-26 22:25:58 上传
Chronic Kidney Disease
Summary The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m2, or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR declines. Interventions targeting specific symptoms, or aimed at supporting educational or lifestyle considerations, make a positive difference to people living with CKD. Inequity in access to services for this disease disproportionally affects disadvantaged populations, and health service provision to incentivise early intervention over provision of care only for advanced CKD is still evolving in many countries.
V1 Aethelmaer 声望 1 生物技术 2020-01-26 22:04:45 上传
Phorbol ester-induced differentiation of L6 myogenic cells involves phospholipase D activation
Abstract TPA, a potent PKC activator, inhibits myogenic differentiation and activates phospholipase D (PLD). We evaluated the involvement of PLD in the TPA effects on L6 myoblasts differentiation. TPA, at concentrations inhibiting differentiation of L6 cells, induced a strong, though transient, PLD activation. Surprisingly, at nanomolar concentration, TPA induced both myogenic differentiation and sustained activation of PLD. Differential effect of TPA can be ascribed to PKC downregulation induced by highest TPA concentrations. TPA-induced differentiation was inhibited by 1-butanol, confirming the involvement of PLD in this effect. These data suggest that prolonged elevation of PLD activity is required for myogenic differentiation.
V2 潦草 声望 16 2020-01-26 21:54:47 上传
The Effects of Local and Systemic Growth Hormone Treatment on Germ Cell Population and Fertility in an Experimental Unilateral Testicular Torsion and Orchiectomy Model
Purpose We evaluated the effects of local and systemic growth hormone on the germ cell population of the contralateral testes of pubertal rats subjected to unilateral testicular torsion and orchiectomy 24 hours later. Materials and Methods A total of 40 male Wistar-Albino rats at age 3 weeks were divided into 5 groups. In the sham operated group the right testis was sutured and orchiectomy was performed 24 hours later. In groups 2 to 5 orchiectomy was performed 24 hours later following testicular torsion. In groups 3 and 4 unloaded and growth hormone loaded gelatin films, respectively, were sutured on the contralateral testes. In group 5 systemic growth hormone was administered for 7 days. Five weeks later each rat was cohabited with 2 female rats and the left testes were removed for evaluation. Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, mean testicular biopsy score and the mean haploid cell percentage were calculated. Mating studies were performed and fertility parameters were assayed. Results Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, mean testicular biopsy score and the mean haploid cell percentage of the contralateral testes were significantly decreased in the control and gelatin groups compared with the other groups. There was no difference between the local and systemic growth hormone groups regarding the haploid cell percentage. There were no differences between the groups in mean fetus numbers, mating or fertility and fecundity indexes except in the gelatin group, in which the mean fetus number was significantly lower. Conclusions Fertility is not affected in rats after 24 hours of testicular torsion and orchiectomy, although there is germ cell injury and a decrease in the percent of haploid cells. Growth hormone administration resulted in the restoration of germ cell histology and an increase in the haploid cell percentage of the contralateral testes. Growth hormone may improve fertility after unilateral testicular torsion and orchiectomy.
V4 竹林风 声望 45 森林资源类 2020-01-26 21:33:24 上传
Different winter soil respiration between two mid-temperate plantation forests
Larch and Chinese pine plantation forests are important carbon (C) sinks in the temperate regions, especially in China. However, their soil respiration in winter is still poorly studied. Here we explored the different microbial characteristics and winter soil respiration in larch and Chinese pine plantation forests in northeastern China, which has similar climate and basic soil characteristics. Results showed that both mean and cumulative winter soil CO2 fluxes were significantly higher in Chinese pine forest (0.45 µmol m−2 s−1 and 46.39 g C m−2, respectively) than in larch forest (0.25 µmol m−2 s−1 and 25.92 g C m−2, respectively). Snow depth and inorganic nitrogen (N) could not explain the differences in winter soil respiration between the two sites. Instead, Chinese pine forest had higher soil microbial biomass, fungi abundance, F/B (ratio of fungi to bacteria), and extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) than larch forest, which could lead to higher winter soil respiration in Chinese pine forest than in larch forest. Our findings indicated that the thermal insulation effect of litter cover was important to winter soil respiration, especially when the snow cover depth was less than 30 cm. Soil microbes played a more important role in soil respiration than soil nutrient status and should be carefully considered for better estimation of the C budget in different forest ecosystems. Although soil respiration was higher in Chinese pine forest, soil organic C content was also higher, suggesting its better C sequestration capacity than larch forest.
V2 小王子的鞋 声望 25 生物信息学与生物统计学 2020-01-26 21:24:03 上传
Monitoring the transport and phosphorylation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in tumor cells in vivo and in vitro by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Abstract We describe the use of 2-deoxy-D-[6-13C]glucose to follow simultaneously, by 13C NMR, both transport and phosporylation to its 6-phosphate form, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in subcutaneous tumors in nude mice.
V2 天明 声望 1 生物系 2020-01-26 21:02:20 上传
Transcription factor IKZF1 is degraded during the apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells induced by kinase inhibition
Abstract Immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide exhibit high responsive rates for newly identified or relapsed multiple myeloma patients. However, their mechanisms of action are not completely understood. One mechanism involves the ubiquitination and degradation of two transcription factors, IKZF1 and IKZF3. Whether there are other degradation pathways for IKZF1 in myeloma cells remains unknown. Here, we found that although IKZF1 ubiquitination was reduced, its stability was also significantly reduced in MM1.S and OPM2 cells treated with kinase inhibitors, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside (DRB) or roscovitine. Through pharmacological inhibition and biochemical approaches we demonstrated that instead of undergoing the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway, IKZF1 was degraded through apoptosis induced by kinase inhibition. This result may provide a new direction in developing therapeutic treatments for myeloma patients.