V4 古可ぷ 声望 55 化学 2019-06-18 23:53:33 上传
Utility of the CPS+EG staging system in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy
Abstract Background Pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) correlates with overall survival (OS) in primary breast cancer. A recently described staging system based on pre-treatment clinical stage (CS), final pathological stage (PS), estrogen receptor (ER) status and nuclear grade (NG) leads to a refined estimation of prognosis in unselected patients. Its performance in luminal type breast cancers has not been determined. This study investigates the clinical utility of this CPS + EG score when restricted to hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2–) patients and compares the results to a cohort of unselected patients. Methods The CPS + EG score was calculated for 6637 unselected patients and 2454 patients with HR + /HER2− tumours who received anthracycline/taxane-based NACT within 8 prospective German trials. Results Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and OS were 75.6% and 84.1% for the unselected cohort and 80.6% and 87.8% for the HR + /HER2− subgroup, respectively. The CPS + EG system distinguished different prognostic groups with 5-year DFS ranging from 0% to 91%. The CPS + EG system leads to an improved categorisation of patients by outcome compared to CS, PS, ER or NG alone. When applying the CPS + EG score to the HR + /HER2− subgroup, a shift to lower scores was observed compared to the overall population, but 5-year DFS and OS for the individual scores were identical to that observed in the overall population. Conclusions In HR + /HER2− patients, the CPS + EG staging system retains its ability to facilitate a refined stratification of patients according to outcome. It can help to select candidates for post-neoadjuvant clinical trials in luminal breast cancer.
V2 利艺睿 声望 10 生物科学 2019-06-18 23:38:31 上传
Open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase II study of the EpSSG and the ITCC evaluating the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in childhood and adolescent patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (the BERNIE study)
Abstract Purpose We evaluated the role of bevacizumab as part of the multi-modality treatment of children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) or non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS). Patients and methods Eligible patients aged ≥6 months to <18 years were randomised to receive induction chemotherapy (four cycles of IVADo + five cycles of IVA, ±bevacizumab), surgery and/or radiotherapy, followed by maintenance chemotherapy (12 cycles of low-dose cyclophosphamide + vinorelbine, ±bevacizumab). The primary objective was event-free survival (EFS) evaluated by an independent radiological review committee. Results One hundred and fifty-four patients were randomised to receive chemotherapy alone (n = 80) or with bevacizumab (n = 74). At the data cut-off for the primary efficacy analysis, median EFS was 14.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.8–35.9) with chemotherapy and 20.6 months (95% CI: 15.2–24.9) with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (stratified hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.61–1.41; P = 0.72). The HR for EFS in patients with RMS (n = 103) was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.73–2.09) versus 0.64 (95% CI: 0.32–1.26) for those with NRSTS (n = 49). Objective response rate was 36.0% (95% CI: 25.2–47.9) with chemotherapy and 54.0% (95% CI: 40.9–66.6) with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (difference of 18.0%; 95% CI: 0.6–35.3). There were no treatment-related deaths and no increased incidence of grade 3/4 toxicities with bevacizumab. Conclusion The addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy appeared tolerable in children and adolescents with metastatic RMS/NRSTS, but the primary end-point of EFS did not show statistically significant improvement. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00643565.
V1 Andy 声望 1 生物科学与生物技术 2019-06-18 22:56:58 上传
Long-term survival of sorafenib-treated FLT3-ITD–positive acute myeloid leukaemia patients relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Abstract Background Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD)–positive acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has a dismal prognosis with limited therapeutic options. FLT3-ITD kinase inhibition is a reasonable but palliative experimental treatment alternative in this situation. Information on long-term outcome is not available. Methods We performed a long-term follow-up analysis of a previously reported cohort of 29 FLT3-ITD–positive AML patients, which were treated in relapse after allo-SCT with sorafenib monotherapy. Findings With a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 6 of 29 patients (21%) are still alive. Excluding one patient who received a second allo-SCT, five patients (17%) achieved sustained complete remissions with sorafenib. Four of these patients are in treatment-free remission for a median of 4.4 years. Interpretation Sorafenib may enable cure of a proportion of very poor risk FLT3-ITD–positive AML relapsing after allo-SCT.
V2 王驰1960 声望 18 生物信息学 2019-06-18 22:49:54 上传
Omission of radiotherapy in elderly patients with early breast cancer: 15-Year results of a prospective non-randomised trial
Abstract Background Whether radiotherapy (RT) is beneficial in elderly (⩾70 years) patients undergoing conservative surgery for early breast cancer has long been controversial. Recent randomised trials show that most elderly patients do not benefit from RT. We started a prospective non-randomised trial to address this issue in 1987 and now present results for the 627 consecutive pT1/2cN0 patients recruited, and treated by conservative surgery (quadrantectomy) and tamoxifen, and assigned non-randomly to RT or no RT. Methods We used multivariate competing risks models to estimate 15-crude cumulative incidence (CCI) of ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence (IBTR), distant metastasis and breast cancer mortality. The models incorporated a propensity score as a measure of probability of receiving RT based on baseline characteristics, to account for the lack of randomisation. Results For pT1 patients, 15-year CCIs of IBTR, distant metastasis and breast cancer death were indistinguishable in the RT and no RT groups. For pT2 patients, 15-year CCI of IBTR was much higher in those not given RT (14.6% versus 0.8%, p = 0.004), although breast cancer mortality and distant metastasis did not differ significantly between RT and no RT. Conclusions Consistent with the findings of recent randomised trials, our long-term data indicate that most elderly, ER-positive patients with pT1 cN0 breast cancer treated by quadrantectomy do not benefit from RT. The 14.6% CCI of IBTR in our pT2 patients is an additional finding not presented in the trials and suggests that RT should be administered to elderly patients with pT2 disease.
V3 李洪峰 声望 7 环境 2019-06-18 22:44:35 上传
Resistance to combination BRAF and MEK inhibition in metastatic melanoma: Where to next?
Abstract Treatment of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway targeted therapies (BRAF/MEK inhibitors) and immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionised management and improved outcomes for patients with advanced stage disease. However, acquired resistance to MAPK inhibitor therapy develops in the majority of patients at approximately 12 months and multiple mechanisms lead to resistance. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance is therefore critical for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies in BRAF-mutant melanoma. Recently, several distinct mechanisms of resistance to BRAF-inhibition have been proposed based on data obtained in experimental melanoma cell models and small series of human tumour samples. These include reactivation of the MAPK pathway resulting in continued extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and activation of parallel signalling pathways including the PI3K-mTOR (phosphoinositide 3-kinase–mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Alterations in how the cells of the immune system respond to melanoma cells treated with targeted therapy may also influence response and progression. In this review, we discuss these mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance which, in turn, will lead to improved outcomes for patients with metastatic melanoma.
V1 webCoder 声望 1 生物技术 2019-06-18 21:39:01 上传
Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking
Summary Despite isolated areas of improvement, no country to date has reversed its obesity epidemic. Governments, together with a broad range of stakeholders, need to act urgently to decrease the prevalence of obesity. In this Series paper, we review several regulatory and non-regulatory actions taken around the world to address obesity and discuss some of the reasons for the scarce and fitful progress. Additionally, we preview the papers in this Lancet Series, which each identify high-priority actions on key obesity issues and challenge some of the entrenched dichotomies that dominate the thinking about obesity and its solutions. Although obesity is acknowledged as a complex issue, many debates about its causes and solutions are centred around overly simple dichotomies that present seemingly competing perspectives. Examples of such dichotomies explored in this Series include personal versus collective responsibilities for actions, supply versus demand-type explanations for consumption of unhealthy food, government regulation versus industry self-regulation, top-down versus bottom-up drivers for change, treatment versus prevention priorities, and a focus on undernutrition versus overnutrition. We also explore the dichotomy of individual versus environmental drivers of obesity and conclude that people bear some personal responsibility for their health, but environmental factors can readily support or undermine the ability of people to act in their own self-interest. We propose a reframing of obesity that emphasises the reciprocal nature of the interaction between the environment and the individual. Today's food environments exploit people's biological, psychological, social, and economic vulnerabilities, making it easier for them to eat unhealthy foods. This reinforces preferences and demands for foods of poor nutritional quality, furthering the unhealthy food environments. Regulatory actions from governments and increased efforts from industry and civil society will be necessary to break these vicious cycles.
V2 怀想不置 声望 7 生理学与生物物理学 2019-06-18 21:29:10 上传
18-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission computed tomography as predictive of response after chemoradiation in oesophageal cancer patients
Abstract Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a baseline, an interim or a post-chemoradiation (CTRT) 18-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) studies could provide information on pathologic response to CTRT and overall survival (OS). Materials and methods Thirty-one patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, fit for trimodality therapy were prospectively enrolled. Most were men (93.5%), and had a stage III cancer (74.2%). Chemotherapy consisted of oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil (45.2%) and taxane/5-fluorouracil (54.8%). All patients underwent a baseline, an interim (performed 12 ± 2 days after the onset of CTRT) and a post-CTRT 18F-FDG PET/CT study. The 18F-FDG PET/CT variables evaluated were at baseline, interim and post-CTRT studies maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Clinical and 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters were correlated with pathologic complete response (pathCR) and OS. Results Among the 31 patients studied, 61.3% achieved a clinical complete response (cCR) and 87.1% had surgery. The median OS was 35.1 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.9–NA). PathCR rate was 22.2%. There was only a marginal association between cCR and pathCR (p = 0.06). None of the other variables was predictive of pathCR. There was association between OS and baseline TLG (p = 0.03) at the optimal cutoff TLG value of 75.15. Additionally, TLG and ΔTLG post-CTRT were also associated with OS (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion None of the PET parameters is predictive of pathCR but TLG at baseline and post-CTRT are prognostic of OS.
V2 假日小姐 声望 13 生物工程 2019-06-18 21:15:44 上传
Survival impact of postoperative body mass index in gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy
Abstract Background The relationship between preoperative body mass index (BMI) and the survival of postoperative gastric cancer patients is not clear. Furthermore, the survival impact with postoperative BMI is not known, even though weight loss is inevitable after gastrectomy. Methods Patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 2000 and 2008 were included in the study (n = 1909). Patients were divided into three groups based on their BMIs: low (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), and high BMI (≥25.0 kg/m2). Patient survival was compared according to BMI at two time points: baseline and 1 year after surgery. Results Regarding BMI 1 year after surgery, overall survival, disease-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival were longer in the high BMI group than the low and normal BMI groups. In a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the patient's age, sex, type of surgery, tumour stage, histology, curative resection, and BMI at baseline, a high BMI 1 year after surgery was associated with lower overall mortality compared to normal BMI (hazard ratio 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.26–0.98). However, BMI at baseline was not an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion BMI 1 year after surgery significantly predicted the long-term survival of patients with gastric cancer compared with the preoperative BMI.
V1 江河散人 声望 2 生物科学与生物技术 2019-06-18 21:02:43 上传
A polymer-coated, paclitaxel-eluting stent (Eluvia) versus a polymer-free, paclitaxel-coated stent (Zilver PTX) for endovascular femoropopliteal intervention (IMPERIAL): a randomised, non-inferiority trial
Summary Background The clinical effect of a drug-eluting stent in the femoropopliteal segment has not been investigated in a randomised trial with a contemporary comparator. The IMPERIAL study sought to compare the safety and efficacy of the polymer-coated, paclitaxel-eluting Eluvia stent with the polymer-free, paclitaxel-coated Zilver PTX stent for treatment of femoropopliteal artery segment lesions. Methods In this randomised, single-blind, non-inferiority study, patients with symptomatic lower-limb ischaemia manifesting as claudication (Rutherford category 2, 3, or 4) with atherosclerotic lesions in the native superficial femoral artery or proximal popliteal artery were enrolled at 65 centres in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, and the USA. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) with a site-specific, web-based randomisation schedule to receive treatment with Eluvia or Zilver PTX. All patients, site personnel, and investigators were masked to treatment assignment until all patients had completed 12 months of follow-up. The primary efficacy endpoint was primary patency (defined as a peak systolic velocity ratio ≤2·4, without clinically driven target lesion revascularisation or bypass of the target lesion) and the primary safety endpoint was major adverse events (ie, all causes of death through 1 month, major amputation of target limb through 12 months, and target lesion revascularisation through 12 months). We set a non-inferiority margin of −10% at 12 months. Primary non-inferiority analyses were done when the minimum sample size required for adequate statistical power had completed 12 months of follow-up. The primary safety non-inferiority analysis included all patients who had completed 12 months of follow-up or had a major adverse event through 12 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02574481. Findings Between Dec 2, 2015, and Feb 15, 2017, 465 patients were randomly assigned to Eluvia (n=309) or to Zilver PTX (n=156). Non-inferiority was shown for both efficacy and safety endpoints at 12 months: primary patency was 86·8% (231/266) in the Eluvia group and 81·5% (106/130) in the Zilver PTX group (difference 5·3% [one-sided lower bound of 95% CI −0·66]; p<0·0001). 259 (94·9%) of 273 patients in the Eluvia group and 121 (91·0%) of 133 patients in the Zilver PTX group had not had a major adverse event at 12 months (difference 3·9% [one-sided lower bound of 95% CI −0·46]; p<0.0001). No deaths were reported in either group. One patient in the Eluvia group had a major amputation and 13 patients in each group required target lesion revascularisation. Interpretation The Eluvia stent was non-inferior to the Zilver PTX stent in terms of primary patency and major adverse events at 12 months after treatment of patients for femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease. Funding Boston Scientific.
V2 JinkeyAI 声望 9 生物信息学 2019-06-18 21:02:16 上传
Location of colon cancer (right-sided versus left-sided) as a prognostic factor and a predictor of benefit from cetuximab in NCIC CO.17
Abstract Background Right- and left-sided colon cancers (RC, LC) differ with respect to biology, pathology and epidemiology. Previous data suggest a mortality difference between RC and LC. We examined if primary tumour side also predicts for outcome in chemotherapy refractory, metastatic colon cancer (MCC). We also compared RC versus LC as a predictor of efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition with cetuximab. Methods Reanalyzing NCIC CO.17 trial (cetuximab versus best supportive care [BSC]), we coded the primary tumour side as RC (caecum to transverse colon) or LC (splenic flexure to rectosigmoid). The association between tumour side and baseline characteristics was assessed. Cox regression models determined factors affecting overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Results Patients with RC (150/399) had more poorly differentiated, mutant KRAS, mutated PIK3CA and wild-type BRAF tumours, fewer liver and lung metastases, and shorter interval between diagnosis and study entry. Among BSC patients, tumour side was not prognostic for PFS (hazard ratios (HR) 1.07 [0.79–1.44], p = 0.67) or OS (HR 0.96 [0.70–1.31], p = 0.78). Among wild-type KRAS patients, those with LC had significantly improved PFS when treated with cetuximab compared to BSC (median 5.4 versus 1.8 months, HR 0.28 [0.18–0.45], p < 0.0001), whereas those with RC did not (median 1.9 versus 1.9 months, HR 0.73 [0.42–1.27], p = 0.26), [interaction p = 0.002]. Conclusion In refractory MCC, tumour location within the colon is not prognostic, but is strongly predictive of PFS benefit from cetuximab therapy. Additional research is needed to understand the molecular differences between RC and LC and their interaction with EGFR inhibition.
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