V1 芥末烤雨 声望 2 动物资源科学 2021-07-29 13:40:53 上传
Nanoliposome C6-Ceramide Increases the Anti-tumor Immune Response and Slows Growth of Liver Tumors in Mice
Background & Aims Ceramide, a sphingolipid metabolite, affects T-cell signaling, induces apoptosis of cancer cells, and slows tumor growth in mice. However, it has not been used as a chemotherapeutic agent because of its cell impermeability and precipitation in aqueous solution. We developed a nanoliposome-loaded C6-ceremide (LipC6) to overcome this limitation and investigated its effects in mice with liver tumors. Methods Immune competent C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride and intra-splenic injections of oncogenic hepatocytes. As a result, tumors resembling human hepatocellular carcinomas developed in a fibrotic liver setting. After tumors formed, mice were given an injection of LipC6 or vehicle via tail vein every other day for 2 weeks. This was followed by administration, also via tail vein, of tumor antigen-specific (TAS) CD8+ T cells isolated from the spleens of line 416 mice, and subsequent immunization by intraperitoneal injection of tumor antigen-expressing B6/WT-19 cells. Tumor growth was monitored with magnetic resonance imaging. Tumor apoptosis, proliferation, and AKT expression were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and immunoblots. Cytokine production, phenotype, and function of TAS CD8+ T cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were studied with flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TAMs and bone marrow-derived macrophages, induced by colony stimulating factor 2 (GMCSF or CSF2) or colony stimulating factor 1 (MCSF or CSF1), were detected using a luminescent assay. Results Injection of LipC6 slowed tumor growth by reducing tumor cell proliferation and phosphorylation of AKT, and increasing tumor cell apoptosis, compared with vehicle. Tumors grew more slowly in mice given the combination of LipC6 injection and TAS CD8+ T cells followed by immunization compared with mice given vehicle, LipC6, the T cells, or immunization alone. LipC6 injection also reduced numbers of TAMs and their production of ROS. LipC6 induced TAMs to differentiate into an M1 phenotype, which reduced immune suppression and increased activity of CD8+ T cells. These results were validated by experiments with bone marrow-derived macrophages induced by GMCSF or MCSF. Conclusions In mice with liver tumors, injection of LipC6 reduces the number of TAMs and the ability of TAMs to suppress the anti-tumor immune response. LipC6 also increases the anti-tumor effects of TAS CD8+ T cells. LipC6 might therefore increase the efficacy of immune therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
V2 惊叹之海 声望 11 生物科学与生物技术 2021-07-29 13:27:44 上传
Current concepts in management of pain in children in the emergency department
Summary Pain is common in children presenting to emergency departments with episodic illnesses, acute injuries, and exacerbation of chronic disorders. We review recognition and assessment of pain in infants and children and discuss the manifestations of pain in children with chronic illness, recurrent pain syndromes, and cognitive impairment, including the difficulties of pain management in these patients. Non-pharmacological interventions, as adjuncts to pharmacological management for acute anxiety and pain, are described by age and development. We discuss the pharmacological management of acute pain and anxiety, reviewing invasive and non-invasive routes of administration, pharmacology, and adverse effects.
V1 柳曦 声望 2 生物安全 2021-07-29 13:24:19 上传
SRD5A gene polymorphism in Japanese men predicts prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer with androgen-deprivation therapy
Abstract Aim De novo androgen synthesis is thought to be involved in the progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) during androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). During androgen synthesis, 5α-reductase encoded by SRD5A catalyses testosterone into more active dihydrotestosterone and may be involved in the progression to CRPC. Then, this study aimed to reveal the association between genetic variations in SRD5A and the prognosis in metastatic prostate cancer. Methods We studied the polymorphisms rs518673 and rs166050 in SRD5A1, and rs12470143, rs523349, rs676033 and rs2208532 in SRD5A2 as well as the time to CRPC progression and overall survival in 104 patients with metastatic prostate cancer that had undergone primary ADT. The association between the polymorphisms and the progression to CRPC as well as overall survival was examined. Results Patients carrying the more active GG genotype in SRD5A2 rs523349 exhibited a higher risk of the progression (hazard ration [95% confidence interval], 1.93 [1.14–3.14], p = 0.016) and death (hazard ration [95% confidence interval], 2.14 [1.16–3.76], p = 0.016), compared with less active GC/CC genotypes in SRD5A2 rs523349. Conclusions High 5α-reductase activity due to the polymorphism in SRD5A2 may contribute to resistance to ADT. Furthermore, SRD5A2 rs523349 polymorphism may be a promising biomarker for metastatic prostate cancer patients treated with primary ADT and a molecular target for advanced prostate cancer.
V1 马国强 声望 1 生理学与生物物理学 2021-07-29 13:20:06 上传
Autophagy, Inflammation, and Immune Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis
Pancreatitis is a common disorder with significant morbidity and mortality, yet little is known about its pathogenesis, and there is no specific or effective treatment. Its development involves dysregulated autophagy and unresolved inflammation, demonstrated by studies in genetic and experimental mouse models. Disease severity depends on whether the inflammatory response resolves or amplifies, leading to multi-organ failure. Dysregulated autophagy might promote the inflammatory response in the pancreas. We discuss the roles of autophagy and inflammation in pancreatitis, mechanisms of deregulation, and connections among disordered pathways. We identify gaps in our knowledge and delineate perspective directions for research. Elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms could lead to new targets for treating or reducing the severity of pancreatitis.
V2 魏欢欢 声望 10 生物工程 2021-07-29 13:16:18 上传
Current perspectives on recommendations for BRCA genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients
Abstract Traditionally, BRCA genetic testing has been undertaken to identify patients and family members at future risk of developing cancer and patients have been referred for testing based on family history. However, the now recognised risk of ovarian cancer (OC) patients, even those with no known family history, harbouring a mutation in BRCA1/2, together with the first poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi; olaparib [Lynparza]) being licenced for the treatment of BRCA-mutated OC, has led to reconsideration of referral criteria for OC patients. Provided here is a review of the existing data and guidelines in the European Union, relating to recommendations, as well as considerations, for the referral of OC patients for BRCA genetic testing. Based on this review of newly updated guidance and up-to-date evidence, the following is recommended: all patients with invasive epithelial OC (excluding borderline or mucinous), including those with fallopian tube and peritoneal cancers, should be considered as candidates for referral for BRCA genetic testing, irrespective of age; genetic testing should ideally be offered at diagnosis, although patients can be referred at any stage; retrospective testing should be offered to patients in long-term follow-up because of the implications for family members and individual future breast cancer risk; and germline BRCA testing of a blood/saliva sample should initially be conducted and, if negative, tumour tissue should be tested (to identify non-germline [somatic] BRCA PARPi therapy candidates).
V3 熊孩子 声望 21 2021-07-29 13:00:24 上传
Liquid biopsy-based clinical research in early breast cancer: The EORTC 90091-10093 Treat CTC trial
Abstract There is increasing evidence that breast cancer evolves over time under the selection pressure of systemic treatment. Today, treatment decisions in early breast cancer are based on primary tumour characteristics without considering the disease evolution. Chemoresistant micrometastatic disease is poorly characterised and thus it is not used in current clinical practice as a tool to personalise treatment approaches. The detection of chemoresistant circulating tumour cells (CTCs) has been shown to be associated with worse prognosis in early breast cancer. The ongoing Treat CTC trial is the first international, liquid biopsy-based trial evaluating the concept of targeting chemoresistant minimal residual disease: detection of CTCs following adjuvant chemotherapy (adjuvant cohort) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients who did not achieve pathological complete response (neoadjuvant cohort). This article presents the rational and design of this trial and the results of the pilot phase after 350 patients have been screened and provides insights that might provide information for future trials using the liquid biopsy approach as a tool towards precision medicine (NCT01548677).
V1 刘巩 声望 1 生态与进化生物学系 2021-07-29 12:57:12 上传
Self-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis
Summary Background Children with cerebral palsy who can self-report have similar quality of life (QoL) to their able-bodied peers. Is this similarity also found in adolescence? We examined how self-reported QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy varies with impairment and compares with the general population, and how factors in childhood predict adolescent QoL. Methods We report QoL outcomes in a longitudinal follow-up and cross-sectional analysis of individuals included in the SPARCLE1 (childhood) and SPARCLE2 (adolescent) studies. In 2004 (SPARCLE1), a cohort of 818 children aged 8–12 years were randomly selected from population-based cerebral palsy registers in nine European regions. We gathered data from 500 participants about QoL with KIDSCREEN (ten domains); frequency of pain; child psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index). At follow-up in 2009 (SPARCLE2), 355 (71%) adolescents aged 13–17 years remained in the study and self-reported QoL (longitudinal sample). 76 additional adolescents self-reported QoL in 2009, providing data for 431 adolescents in the cross-sectional sample. Researchers gathered data at home visits. We compared QoL against matched controls in the general population. We used multivariable regression to relate QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy to impairments (cross-sectional analysis) and to childhood QoL, pain, psychological problems, and parenting stress (longitudinal analysis). Findings Severity of impairment was significantly associated (p<0·01) with reduced adolescent QoL on only three domains (Moods and emotions, Autonomy, and Social support and peers); average differences in QoL between the least and most able groups were generally less than 0·5 SD. Adolescents with cerebral palsy had significantly lower QoL than did those in the general population in only one domain (Social support and peers; mean difference −2·7 [0·25 SD], 95% CI −4·3 to −1·4). Pain in childhood or adolescence was strongly associated with low adolescent QoL on eight domains. Childhood QoL was a consistent predictor of adolescent QoL. Child psychological problems and parenting stress in childhood or their worsening between childhood and adolescence predicted only small reductions in adolescent QoL. Interpretation Individual and societal attitudes should be affected by the similarity of the QoL of adolescents with and without cerebral palsy. Adolescents with cerebral palsy need particular help to maintain and develop peer relationships. Interventions in childhood to alleviate psychological difficulties, parenting stress, and especially pain, are justified for their intrinsic value and for their longer term effect on adolescent QoL. Funding SPARCLE1 was funded by the European Union Research Framework 5 Program (grant number QLG5-CT-2002-00636), the German Ministry of Health GRR-58640-2/14, and the German Foundation for the Disabled Child. SPARCLE2 was funded by: Wellcome Trust WT086315 A1A (UK and Ireland); Medical Faculty of the University of Lübeck E40-2009 and E26-2010 (Germany); CNSA, INSERM, MiRe–DREES, and IRESP (France); Ludvig and Sara Elsass Foundation, The Spastics Society and Vanforefonden (Denmark); Cooperativa Sociale “Gli Anni in Tasca” and Fondazione Carivit, Viterbo (Italy); Göteborg University—Riksforbundet for Rorelsehindrade Barn och Ungdomar and the Folke Bernadotte Foundation (Sweden).
V1 贤鱼 声望 1 动植物检疫 2021-07-29 12:49:07 上传
The Epidemiology of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased in many Western countries and is higher in men than women. Some risk factors for EAC have been identified—mainly gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, obesity, and tobacco smoking. It is not clear whether interventions to address these factors can reduce risk of EAC, although some evidence exists for smoking cessation. Although consumption of alcohol is not associated with EAC risk, other exposures, such as physical activity, nutrition, and medication use, require further study. Genetic variants have been associated with risk for EAC, but their overall contribution is low. Studies are needed to investigate associations between risk factors and the molecular subtypes of EAC. The prognosis for patients with EAC has slightly improved, but remains poor—screening and surveillance trials of high-risk individuals are needed.
V2 Aramis 声望 1 植物生物技术 2021-07-29 12:24:42 上传
Breast cancer in young women and prognosis: How important are proliferation markers?
Abstract Aim Compared to middle-aged women, young women with breast cancer have a higher risk of systemic disease. We studied expression of proliferation markers in relation to age and subtype and their association with long-term prognosis. Methods Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was studied in 504 women aged <40 years and 383 women aged ≥40 years from a population-based cohort. Information on patient characteristics, treatment and follow-up was collected from medical records. Tissue microarrays were produced for analysis of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), Her2, Ki-67 and cyclins. Results Young women with luminal tumours had significantly higher expression of Ki-67 and cyclins. Proliferation markers were prognostic only within this subtype. Ki-67 was a prognostic indicator only in young women with luminal PR+ tumours. The optimal cut-off for Ki-67 varied by age. High expression of cyclin E1 conferred a better DDFS in women aged <40 years with luminal PR− tumours (hazard ratio [HR] 0.47 [0.24–0.92]). Age <40 years was an independent risk factor of DDFS exclusively in women with luminal B PR+ tumours (HR 2.35 [1.22–4.50]). Young women with luminal B PR− tumours expressing low cyclin E1 had a six-fold risk of distant disease compared with luminal A (HR 6.21 [2.17–17.6]). Conclusions The higher expression of proliferation markers in young women does not have a strong impact on prognosis. Ki-67 is only prognostic in the subgroup of young women with luminal PR+ tumours. The only cyclin adding prognostic value beyond subtype is cyclin E1. Age is an independent prognostic factor only in women with luminal B PR+ tumours.
V1 闫鹏宇 声望 1 动物生物技术 2021-07-29 12:08:23 上传
European Research on Electrochemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer (EURECA) project: Results of the treatment of skin cancer
Abstract Electrochemotherapy is an effective and safe method for local treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours, where electric pulses cause increased permeability of cell membranes in the tumour mass, enabling dramatically enhanced effectiveness of bleomycin and other hydrophilic drugs. Here, we report results of a European multi-institutional prospective study of the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in the treatment of skin cancer of the head and neck (HN) area, where standard treatments had either failed or were not deemed suitable or declined by the patient. A total of 105 patients affected by primary or recurrent skin cancer of the HN area were enrolled; of these, 99 were eligible for evaluation of tumour response. By far, the majority (82%) were treated only once, and 18% of patients had a second treatment. The objective response was highest for basal cell carcinoma (97%) and for other histologies was 74%. Small, primary, and treatment-naive carcinomas responded significantly better (p < 0.05), as investigated by univariate analysis. Electrochemotherapy was well tolerated and led to a significant improvement of quality of life, estimated by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaires. At 1-year follow-up, the percentages of overall and disease-free survival were 76% and 89%, respectively. Electrochemotherapy is an effective option for skin cancers of the HN area and can be considered a feasible alternative to standard treatments when such an alternative is appropriate. The precise role for electrochemotherapy in the treatment algorithm for non-melanoma skin cancer of the HN region requires data from future randomised controlled studies. (ISRCTN registry N. 30427)