V2 耳月田 声望 22 生物工程 2020-04-07 23:37:40 上传
Tension and Elasticity Contribute to Fibroblast Cell Shape in Three Dimensions
Abstract The shape of animal cells is an important regulator for many essential processes such as cell migration or division. It is strongly determined by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, which is also the main regulator of cell forces. Quantitative analysis of cell shape helps to reveal the physical processes underlying cell shape and forces, but it is notoriously difficult to conduct it in three dimensions. Here we use direct laser writing to create 3D open scaffolds for adhesion of connective tissue cells through well-defined adhesion platforms. Due to actomyosin contractility in the cell contour, characteristic invaginations lined by actin bundles form between adjacent adhesion sites. Using quantitative image processing and mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that the resulting shapes are determined not only by contractility, but also by elastic stress in the peripheral actin bundles. In this way, cells can generate higher forces than through contractility alone.
V1 魔鬼的赞歌 声望 1 植物生物技术 2020-04-07 23:21:51 上传
Efficiency and safety of the combination of moxifloxacin, pretomanid (PA-824), and pyrazinamide during the first 8 weeks of antituberculosis treatment: a phase 2b, open-label, partly randomised trial in patients with drug-susceptible or drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis
Summary Background New antituberculosis regimens are urgently needed to shorten tuberculosis treatment. Following on from favourable assessment in a 2 week study, we investigated a novel regimen for efficacy and safety in drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis during the first 8 weeks of treatment. Methods We did this phase 2b study of bactericidal activity—defined as the decrease in colony forming units (CFUs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of patients with microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis—at eight sites in South Africa and Tanzania. We enrolled treatment-naive patients with drug-susceptible, pulmonary tuberculosis, who were randomly assigned by computer-generated sequences to receive either 8 weeks of moxifloxacin, 100 mg pretomanid (formerly known as PA-824), and pyrazinamide (MPa100Z regimen); moxifloxacin, 200 mg pretomanid, and pyrazinamide (MPa200Z regimen); or the current standard care for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis, isoniazid, rifampicin, PZA, and ethambutol (HRZE regimen). A group of patients with MDR tuberculosis received MPa200Z (DRMPa200Z group). The primary outcome was bactericidal activity measured by the mean daily rate of reduction in M tuberculosis CFUs per mL overnight sputum collected once a week, with joint Bayesian non-linear mixed-effects regression modelling. We also assessed safety and tolerability by monitoring adverse events. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01498419. Findings Between March 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013 we enrolled 207 patients and randomly assigned them to treatment groups; we assigned 60 patients to the MPa100Z regimen, 62 to the MPa200Z regimen, and 59 to the HRZE regimen. We non-randomly assigned 26 patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis to the DRMPa200Z regimen. In patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis, the bactericidal activity of MPa200Z (n=54) on days 0–56 (0·155, 95% Bayesian credibility interval 0·133–0·178) was significantly greater than for HRZE (n=54, 0·112, 0·093–0·131). DRMPa200Z (n=9) had bactericidal activity of 0·117 (0·070–0·174). The bactericidal activity on days 7–14 was strongly associated with bactericidal activity on days 7–56. Frequencies of adverse events were similar to standard treatment in all groups. The most common adverse event was hyperuricaemia in 59 (29%) patients (17 [28%] patients in MPa100Z group, 17 [27%] patients in MPa200Z group, 17 [29%] patients. in HRZE group, and 8 [31%] patients in DRMPa200Z group). Other common adverse events were nausea in (14 [23%] patients in MPa100Z group, 8 [13%] patients in MPa200Z group, 7 [12%] patients in HRZE group, and 8 [31%] patients in DRMPa200Z group) and vomiting (7 [12%] patients in MPa100Z group, 7 [11%] patients in MPa200Z group, 7 [12%] patients in HRZE group, and 4 [15%] patients in DRMPa200Z group). No on-treatment electrocardiogram occurrences of corrected QT interval more than 500 ms (an indicator of potential of ventricular tachyarrhythmia) were reported. No phenotypic resistance developed to any of the drugs in the regimen. Interpretation The combination of moxifloxacin, pretomanid, and pyrazinamide, was safe, well tolerated, and showed superior bactericidal activity in drug-susceptible tuberculosis during 8 weeks of treatment. Results were consistent between drug-susceptible and MDR tuberculosis. This new regimen is ready to enter phase 3 trials in patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis and MDR-tuberculosis, with the goal of shortening and simplifying treatment. Funding Global Alliance for TB Drug Development.
V2 Alanna 声望 1 遗传学和遗传工程系 2020-04-07 23:11:58 上传
Prostate cancer
Summary Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management.
V1 Angel 声望 1 微生物学与微生物工程系 2020-04-07 23:01:05 上传
Intratympanic methylprednisolone versus gentamicin in patients with unilateral Ménière's disease: a randomised, double-blind, comparative effectiveness trial
Summary Background Ménière's disease is characterised by severe vertigo attacks and hearing loss. Intratympanic gentamicin, the standard treatment for refractory Ménière's disease, reduces vertigo, but damages vestibular function and can worsen hearing. We aimed to assess whether intratympanic administration of the corticosteroid methylprednisolone reduces vertigo compared with gentamicin. Methods In this double-blind comparative effectiveness trial, patients aged 18–70 years with refractory unilateral Ménière's disease were enrolled at Charing Cross Hospital (London, UK) and Leicester Royal Infirmary (Leicester, UK). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a block design to two intratympanic methylprednisolone (62·5 mg/mL) or gentamicin (40 mg/mL) injections given 2 weeks apart, and were followed up for 2 years. All investigators and patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was vertigo frequency over the final 6 months (18–24 months after injection) compared with the 6 months before the first injection. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, and then per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00802529. Findings Between June 19, 2009, and April 15, 2013, 256 patients with Ménière's disease were screened, 60 of whom were enrolled and randomly assigned: 30 to gentamicin and 30 to methylprednisolone. In the intention-to-treat analysis (ie, all 60 patients), the mean number of vertigo attacks in the final 6 months compared with the 6 months before the first injection (primary outcome) decreased from 19·9 (SD 16·7) to 2·5 (5·8) in the gentamicin group (87% reduction) and from 16·4 (12·5) to 1·6 (3·4) in the methylprednisolone group (90% reduction; mean difference −0·9, 95% CI −3·4 to 1·6). Patients whose vertigo did not improve after injection (ie, non-responders) after being assessed by an unmasked clinician were eligible for additional injections given by a masked clinician (eight patients in the gentamicin group vs 15 in the methylprednisolone group). Two non-responders switched from methylprednisolone to gentamicin. Both drugs were well tolerated with no safety concerns. Six patients reported one adverse event each: three in the gentamicin group and three in the methylprednisolone group. The most common adverse event was minor ear infections, which was experienced by one patient in the gentamicin group and two in the methylprednisolone group. Interpretation Methylprednisolone injections are a non-ablative, effective treatment for refractory Ménière's disease. The choice between methylprednisolone and gentamicin should be made based on clinical knowledge and patient circumstances. Funding Ménière's Society and National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre.
V1 书山寻路 声望 1 植物生物技术 2020-04-07 22:58:48 上传
External Validation of Contact Surface Area as a Predictor of Postoperative Renal Function in Patients Undergoing Partial Nephrectomy
Purpose We sought to externally validate a mathematical formula for tumor contact surface area as a predictor of postoperative renal function in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods We queried a prospectively maintained kidney cancer database for patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2014 and 2016. Contact surface area was calculated using data obtained from preoperative cross-sectional imaging. The correlation between contact surface area and perioperative variables was examined. The correlation between postoperative renal functional outcomes, contact surface area and the R.E.N.A.L. (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines and tumor touches main renal artery or vein) nephrometry score was also assessed. Results A total of 257 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy had sufficient data to enter the study. Median contact surface area was 14.5 cm2 (IQR 6.2–36) and the median nephrometry score was 9 (IQR 7–10). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area correlated with estimated blood loss (rs = 0.42, p <0.001), length of stay (rs = 0.18, p = 0.005), and percent and absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (rs = –0.77 and –0.78, respectively, each p <0.001). On multivariable analysis contact surface area and nephrometry score were independent predictors of the absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (each p <0.001). ROC curve analysis revealed that contact surface area was a better predictor of a greater than 20% postoperative decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the nephrometry score (AUC 0.94 vs 0.80). Conclusions Contact surface area correlated with the change in postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy. It can be used in conjunction with the nephrometry score to counsel patients about the risk of renal functional decline after partial nephrectomy.
V1 尤政 声望 1 2020-04-07 22:55:26 上传
Prednisone versus prednisone plus ciclosporin versus prednisone plus methotrexate in new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis: a randomised trial
Summary Background Most data for treatment of dermatomyositis and juvenile dermatomyositis are from anecdotal, non-randomised case series. We aimed to compare, in a randomised trial, the efficacy and safety of prednisone alone with that of prednisone plus either methotrexate or ciclosporin in children with new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis. Methods We did a randomised trial at 54 centres in 22 countries. We enrolled patients aged 18 years or younger with new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis who had received no previous treatment and did not have cutaneous or gastrointestinal ulceration. We randomly allocated 139 patients via a computer-based system to prednisone alone or in combination with either ciclosporin or methotrexate. We did not mask patients or investigators to treatment assignments. Our primary outcomes were the proportion of patients achieving a juvenile dermatomyositis PRINTO 20 level of improvement (20% improvement in three of six core set variables at 6 months), time to clinical remission, and time to treatment failure. We compared the three treatment groups with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Friedman's test, and we analysed survival with Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Analysis was by intention to treat. Here, we present results after at least 2 years of treatment (induction and maintenance phases). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00323960. Findings Between May 31, 2006, and Nov 12, 2010, 47 patients were randomly assigned prednisone alone, 46 were allocated prednisone plus ciclosporin, and 46 were randomised prednisone plus methotrexate. Median duration of follow-up was 35·5 months. At month 6, 24 (51%) of 47 patients assigned prednisone, 32 (70%) of 46 allocated prednisone plus ciclosporin, and 33 (72%) of 46 administered prednisone plus methotrexate achieved a juvenile dermatomyositis PRINTO 20 improvement (p=0·0228). Median time to clinical remission was 41·9 months in patients assigned prednisone plus methotrexate but was not observable in the other two treatment groups (2·45 fold [95% CI 1·2–5·0] increase with prednisone plus methotrexate; p=0·012). Median time to treatment failure was 16·7 months in patients allocated prednisone, 53·3 months in those assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin, but was not observable in patients randomised to prednisone plus methotrexate (1·95 fold [95% CI 1·20–3·15] increase with prednisone; p=0·009). Median time to prednisone discontinuation was 35·8 months with prednisone alone compared with 29·4–29·7 months in the combination groups (p=0·002). A significantly greater proportion of patients assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin had adverse events, affecting the skin and subcutaneous tissues, gastrointestinal system, and general disorders. Infections and infestations were significantly increased in patients assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin and prednisone plus methotrexate. No patients died during the study. Interpretation Combined treatment with prednisone and either ciclosporin or methotrexate was more effective than prednisone alone. The safety profile and steroid-sparing effect favoured the combination of prednisone plus methotrexate. Funding Italian Agency of Drug Evaluation, Istituto Giannina Gaslini (Genoa, Italy), Myositis Association (USA).
V4 tri 声望 69 2020-04-07 22:46:41 上传
Pancreatic cancer
Summary Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease, for which mortality closely parallels incidence. Most patients with pancreatic cancer remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. There is no standard programme for screening patients at high risk of pancreatic cancer (eg, those with a family history of pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis). Most pancreatic cancers arise from microscopic non-invasive epithelial proliferations within the pancreatic ducts, referred to as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias. There are four major driver genes for pancreatic cancer: KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4. KRAS mutation and alterations in CDKN2A are early events in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration offer high diagnostic ability for pancreatic cancer. Surgical resection is regarded as the only potentially curative treatment, and adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine or S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, is given after surgery. FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, folinic acid [leucovorin], irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) and gemcitabine plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) are the treatments of choice for patients who are not surgical candidates but have good performance status.
V2 好小伙万丈光芒 声望 26 2020-04-07 22:41:20 上传
Differential Expression of PD-L1 in High Grade T1 vs Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma and its Prognostic Implications
Purpose PD-L1 is expressed on tumor cells and tumor immune cell infiltrates. In metastatic bladder cancer increased tumor immune cell infiltrate PD-L1 positivity correlated with better overall survival. However, to our knowledge in high grade T1 bladder tumors positivity on tumor cells and tumor immune cell infiltrates, and correlation with outcomes or pathological features remain unknown. Materials and Methods Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumor samples from 140 patients with clinically annotated, high grade T1 bladder tumors were retrieved. All patients were initially diagnosed with high grade T1 bladder tumors by transurethral resection, subsequently received bacillus Calmette-Guérin and had a median followup of 7.4 years. PD-L1 positivity on initial transurethral resection was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a mouse monoclonal antiPD-L1 antibody (405.9A11). Tumor cell PD-L1 positivity was defined as staining of 5% of the tumor cell membrane. Tumor immune cell infiltrate PD-L1 positivity was scored based on the extent of infiltrate and the percent of positive cells. The Fisher exact test was used to assess associations of PD-L1 positivity with disease outcomes, carcinoma in situ presence and the difference between high grade T1 bladder tumors and muscle invasive bladder cancer. Results Among 140 patients with high grade T1 bladder tumors tumor cells and tumor immune cell infiltrate PD-L1 positivity was seen in 6 (4%) and 48 (34.3%), respectively. In a subset of 106 patients with adequate followup PD-L1 positivity did not correlate with disease outcomes on tumor cells (p = 0.3) or on tumor immune cell infiltrates (p = 0.47). PD-L1 positivity also did not correlate with the presence of carcinoma in situ. Tumor cell PD-L1 positivity was significantly less in high grade T1 bladder tumors than in muscle invasive bladder cancer (p <0.001). Conclusions PD-L1 is widely expressed on tumor immune cell infiltrates but not on tumor cells in high grade T1 bladder tumors. We did not find a correlation between PD-L1 positivity and outcomes or carcinoma in situ presence. Tumor cell PD-L1 positivity is significantly lower in high grade T1 bladder tumors than in muscle invasive bladder cancer.
V2 宣懿 声望 9 生物科学与技术系 2020-04-07 22:33:22 上传
Daytime variation of perioperative myocardial injury in cardiac surgery and its prevention by Rev-Erbα antagonism: a single-centre propensity-matched cohort study and a randomised study
Summary Background On-pump cardiac surgery provokes a predictable perioperative myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion injury which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. We determined the occurrence of time-of-the-day variation in perioperative myocardial injury in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement and its molecular mechanisms. Methods We studied the incidence of major adverse cardiac events in a prospective observational single-centre cohort study of patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (>50%) who were referred to our cardiovascular surgery department at Lille University Hospital (Lille, France) for aortic valve replacement and underwent surgery in the morning or afternoon. Patients were matched into pairs by propensity score. We also did a randomised study, in which we evaluated perioperative myocardial injury and myocardial samples of patients randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted block randomisation (block size of eight) to undergo isolated aortic valve replacement surgery either in the morning or afternoon. We also evaluated human and rodent myocardium in ex-vivo hypoxia–reoxygenation models and did a transcriptomic analysis in myocardial samples from the randomised patients to identify the signalling pathway(s) involved. The primary objective of the study was to assess whether myocardial tolerance of ischaemia–reperfusion differed depending on the timing of aortic valve replacement surgery (morning vs afternoon), as measured by the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and admission to hospital for acute heart failure). The randomised study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02812901. Findings In the cohort study (n=596 patients in matched pairs who underwent either morning surgery [n=298] or afternoon surgery [n=298]), during the 500 days following aortic valve replacement, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events was lower in the afternoon surgery group than in the morning group: hazard ratio 0·50 (95% CI 0·32–0·77; p=0·0021). In the randomised study, 88 patients were randomly assigned to undergo surgery in the morning (n=44) or afternoon (n=44); perioperative myocardial injury assessed with the geometric mean of perioperative cardiac troponin T release was significantly lower in the afternoon group than in the morning group (estimated ratio of geometric means for afternoon to morning of 0·79 [95% CI 0·68–0·93; p=0·0045]). Ex-vivo analysis of human myocardium revealed an intrinsic morning–afternoon variation in hypoxia–reoxygenation tolerance, concomitant with transcriptional alterations in circadian gene expression with the nuclear receptor Rev-Erbα being highest in the morning. In a mouse Langendorff model of hypoxia–reoxygenation myocardial injury, Rev-Erbα gene deletion or antagonist treatment reduced injury at the time of sleep-to-wake transition, through an increase in the expression of the ischaemia–reperfusion injury modulator CDKN1a/p21. Interpretation Perioperative myocardial injury is transcriptionally orchestrated by the circadian clock in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement, and Rev-Erbα antagonism seems to be a pharmacological strategy for cardioprotection. Afternoon surgery might provide perioperative myocardial protection and lead to improved patient outcomes compared with morning surgery. Funding Fondation de France, Fédération Française de Cardiologie, EU-FP7-Eurhythdia, Agence Nationale pour la Recherche ANR-10-LABX-46, and CPER-Centre Transdisciplinaire de Recherche sur la Longévité.
V2 南有南风 声望 6 生物科学与技术系 2020-04-07 21:50:26 上传
Screening for fetal growth restriction with universal third trimester ultrasonography in nulliparous women in the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study: a prospective cohort study
Summary Background Fetal growth restriction is a major determinant of adverse perinatal outcome. Screening procedures for fetal growth restriction need to identify small babies and then differentiate between those that are healthy and those that are pathologically small. We sought to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of universal ultrasonic fetal biometry in the third trimester as a screening test for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and whether the risk of morbidity associated with being small differed in the presence or absence of ultrasonic markers of fetal growth restriction. Methods The Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study was a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women with a viable singleton pregnancy at the time of the dating ultrasound scan. Women participating had clinically indicated ultrasonography in the third trimester as per routine clinical care and these results were reported as usual (selective ultrasonography). Additionally, all participants had research ultrasonography, including fetal biometry at 28 and 36 weeks' gestational age. These results were not made available to participants or treating clinicians (universal ultrasonography). We regarded SGA as a birthweight of less than the 10th percentile for gestational age and screen positive for SGA an ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight of less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. Markers of fetal growth restriction included biometric ratios, utero-placental Doppler, and fetal growth velocity. We assessed outcomes for consenting participants who attended research scans and had a livebirth at the Rosie Hospital (Cambridge, UK) after the 28 weeks' research scan. Findings Between Jan 14, 2008, and July 31, 2012, 4512 women provided written informed consent of whom 3977 (88%) were eligible for analysis. Sensitivity for detection of SGA infants was 20% (95% CI 15–24; 69 of 352 fetuses) for selective ultrasonography and 57% (51–62; 199 of 352 fetuses) for universal ultrasonography (relative sensitivity 2·9, 95% CI 2·4–3·5, p<0·0001). Of the 3977 fetuses, 562 (14·1%) were identified by universal ultrasonography with an estimated fetal weight of less than the 10th percentile and were at an increased risk of neonatal morbidity (relative risk [RR] 1·60, 95% CI 1·22–2·09, p=0·0012). However, estimated fetal weight of less than the 10th percentile was only associated with the risk of neonatal morbidity (pinteraction=0·005) if the fetal abdominal circumference growth velocity was in the lowest decile (RR 3·9, 95% CI 1·9–8·1, p=0·0001). 172 (4%) of 3977 pregnancies had both an estimated fetal weight of less than the 10th percentile and abdominal circumference growth velocity in the lowest decile, and had a relative risk of delivering an SGA infant with neonatal morbidity of 17·6 (9·2–34·0, p<0·0001). Interpretation Screening of nulliparous women with universal third trimester fetal biometry roughly tripled detection of SGA infants. Combined analysis of fetal biometry and fetal growth velocity identified a subset of SGA fetuses that were at increased risk of neonatal morbidity. Funding National Institute for Health Research, Medical Research Council, Sands, and GE Healthcare.