V5 李治 声望 47 临床医学 2018-10-24 06:40:18 上传
The multifaceted roles of intrinsic disorder in protein complexes
Abstract Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are important constituents of many protein complexes, playing various structural, functional, and regulatory roles. In such disorder-based protein complexes, functional disorder is used both internally (for assembly, movement, and functional regulation of the different parts of a given complex) and externally (for interactions of a complex with its external regulators). In complex assembly, IDPs/IDPRs serve as the molecular glue that cements complexes or as highly flexible scaffolds. Disorder defines the order of complex assembly and the ability of a protein to be involved in polyvalent interactions. It is at the heart of various binding mechanisms and interaction modes ascribed to IDPs. Disorder in protein complexes is related to multifarious applications of induced folding and induced functional unfolding, or defines the entropic chain activities, such as stochastic machines and binding rheostats. This review opens a FEBS Letters Special Issue on Dynamics, Flexibility, and Intrinsic Disorder in protein assemblies and represents a brief overview of intricate roles played by IDPs and IDPRs in various aspects of protein complexes.
V5 多不容易 声望 117 机械工程 2018-10-24 06:34:25 上传
Hypertrophic scarring: the greatest unmet challenge after burn injury
Summary Improvements in acute burn care have enabled patients to survive massive burns that would have once been fatal. Now up to 70% of patients develop hypertrophic scars after burns. The functional and psychosocial sequelae remain a major rehabilitative challenge, decreasing quality of life and delaying reintegration into society. Approaches to optimise healing potential of burn wounds use targeted wound care and surgery to minimise the development of hypertrophic scarring. Such approaches often fail, and modulation of the established scar is continued although the optimal indication, timing, and combination of therapies have yet to be established. The need for novel treatments is paramount, and future efforts to improve outcomes and quality of life should include optimisation of wound healing to attenuate or prevent hypertrophic scarring, well-designed trials to confirm treatment efficacy, and further elucidation of molecular mechanisms to allow development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies.
V1 Caesar 声望 1 生态与进化生物学系 2018-10-24 06:23:13 上传
Interaction of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin with complement receptor 3 involves multivalent glycan binding
Abstract The interaction of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) with complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) involves N-linked oligosaccharide chains. To investigate the relative importance of the individual N-glycans of CR3 for toxin activity, the asparagine residues of the consensus N-glycosylation sites of CR3 were substituted with glutamine residues that cannot be glycosylated. Examination of CR3 mutant variants and mass spectrometry analysis of the N-glycosylation pattern of CR3 revealed that N-glycans located in the C-terminal part of the CD11b subunit are involved in binding and cytotoxic activity of CyaA. We suggest that these N-glycans form a defined clustered saccharide patch that enables multivalent contact of CR3 with CyaA, enhancing both affinity and specificity of the integrin–toxin interaction.
V1 杨驰 声望 0 2018-10-24 06:22:31 上传
Peptic ulcer disease
Summary The rapidly declining prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and widespread use of potent anti-secretory drugs means peptic ulcer disease has become substantially less prevalent than it was two decades ago. Management has, however, become more challenging than ever because of the threat of increasing antimicrobial resistance worldwide and widespread use of complex anti-thrombotic therapy in the ageing population. Peptic ulcers not associated with H pylori infection or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are now also imposing substantial diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This Seminar aims to provide a balanced overview of the latest advances in the pathogenetic mechanisms of peptic ulcers, guidelines on therapies targeting H pylori infection, approaches to treatment of peptic ulcer complications associated with anti-inflammatory analgesics and anti-thrombotic agents, and the unmet needs in terms of our knowledge and management of this increasingly challenging condition.
V1 孙骁 声望 1 遗传学和遗传工程系 2018-10-24 06:14:00 上传
Extrafine inhaled triple therapy versus dual bronchodilator therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TRIBUTE): a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial
Summary Background Evidence is scarce on the relative risk-benefit of inhaled triple therapy, consisting of inhaled corticosteroid, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and long-acting β2-agonist, versus dual bronchodilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to compare a single-inhaler triple combination of beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium (BDP/FF/G) versus a single-inhaler dual bronchodilator combination of indacaterol plus glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) in terms of the rate of moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations over 52 weeks of treatment. Methods This randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study was done at 187 sites across 17 countries. Eligible patients had symptomatic COPD, severe or very severe airflow limitation, at least one moderate or severe exacerbation in the previous year, and were receiving inhaled maintenance medication. After a 2 week run-in period with one inhalation per day of IND/GLY (85 μg/43 μg), patients were randomly assigned (1:1), via an interactive response technology system, to receive 52 weeks of treatment with two inhalations of extrafine BDP/FF/G (87 μg/5 μg/9 μg) twice per day or one inhalation of IND/GLY (85 μg/43 μg) per day. Randomisation was stratified by country and severity of airflow limitation. The primary endpoint was the rate of moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations across 52 weeks of treatment in all randomised patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-baseline efficacy assessment. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02579850. Findings Between May, 29 2015, and July 10, 2017, 1532 patients received BDP/FF/G (n=764) or IND/GLY (n=768). Moderate-to-severe exacerbation rates were 0·50 per patient per year (95% CI 0·45–0·57) for BDP/FF/G and 0·59 per patient per year (0·53–0·67) for IND/GLY, giving a rate ratio of 0·848 (0·723–0·995, p=0·043) in favour of BDP/FF/G. Adverse events were reported by 490 (64%) of 764 patients receiving BDP/FF/G and 516 (67%) of 768 patients receiving IND/GLY. Pneumonia occurred in 28 (4%) patients receiving BDP/FF/G versus 27 (4%) patients receiving IND/GLY. One treatment-related serious adverse event occurred in each group: dysuria in a patient receiving BDP/FF/G and atrial fibrillation in a patient receiving IND/GLY. Interpretation In patients with symptomatic COPD, severe or very severe airflow limitation, and an exacerbation history despite maintenance therapy, extrafine BDP/FF/G significantly reduced the rate of moderate-to-severe exacerbations compared with IND/GLY, without increasing the risk of pneumonia. Funding Chiesi Farmaceutici.
V2 凌小樱 声望 29 2018-10-24 06:04:59 上传
Interaction of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin with complement receptor 3 involves multivalent glycan binding
Abstract The interaction of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) with complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) involves N-linked oligosaccharide chains. To investigate the relative importance of the individual N-glycans of CR3 for toxin activity, the asparagine residues of the consensus N-glycosylation sites of CR3 were substituted with glutamine residues that cannot be glycosylated. Examination of CR3 mutant variants and mass spectrometry analysis of the N-glycosylation pattern of CR3 revealed that N-glycans located in the C-terminal part of the CD11b subunit are involved in binding and cytotoxic activity of CyaA. We suggest that these N-glycans form a defined clustered saccharide patch that enables multivalent contact of CR3 with CyaA, enhancing both affinity and specificity of the integrin–toxin interaction.
V1 宋百隆 声望 1 植物生物技术 2018-10-24 05:56:51 上传
Origins of lifetime health around the time of conception: causes and consequences
Summary Parental environmental factors, including diet, body composition, metabolism, and stress, affect the health and chronic disease risk of people throughout their lives, as captured in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept. Research across the epidemiological, clinical, and basic science fields has identified the period around conception as being crucial for the processes mediating parental influences on the health of the next generation. During this time, from the maturation of gametes through to early embryonic development, parental lifestyle can adversely influence long-term risks of offspring cardiovascular, metabolic, immune, and neurological morbidities, often termed developmental programming. We review periconceptional induction of disease risk from four broad exposures: maternal overnutrition and obesity; maternal undernutrition; related paternal factors; and the use of assisted reproductive treatment. Studies in both humans and animal models have demonstrated the underlying biological mechanisms, including epigenetic, cellular, physiological, and metabolic processes. We also present a meta-analysis of mouse paternal and maternal protein undernutrition that suggests distinct parental periconceptional contributions to postnatal outcomes. We propose that the evidence for periconceptional effects on lifetime health is now so compelling that it calls for new guidance on parental preparation for pregnancy, beginning before conception, to protect the health of offspring.
V3 star_zhang 声望 15 化学 2018-10-24 05:54:13 上传
Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial
Summary Background Cabotegravir and rilpivirine are antiretroviral drugs in development as long-acting injectable formulations. The LATTE-2 study evaluated long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine for maintenance of HIV-1 viral suppression through 96 weeks. Methods In this randomised, phase 2b, open-label study, treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1 initially received oral cabotegravir 30 mg plus abacavir–lamivudine 600–300 mg once daily. The objective of this study was to select an intramuscular dosing regimen based on a comparison of the antiviral activity, tolerability, and safety of the two intramuscular dosing regimens relative to oral cabotegravir plus abacavir–lamivudine. After a 20-week induction period on oral cabotegravir plus abacavir–lamivudine, patients with viral suppression (plasma HIV-1 RNA 90%). Difference in proportions and associated 95% CIs were supportive to the primary analysis. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02120352. Findings Among 309 enrolled patients, 286 were randomly assigned to the maintenance period (115 to each of the 4-week and 8-week groups and 56 to the oral treatment group). This study is currently ongoing. At 32 weeks following randomisation, both long-acting regimens met primary criteria for comparability in viral suppression relative to the oral comparator group. Viral suppression was maintained at 32 weeks in 51 (91%) of 56 patients in the oral treatment group, 108 (94%) of 115 patients in the 4-week group (difference 2·8% [95% CI −5·8 to 11·5] vs oral treatment), and 109 (95%) of 115 patients in the 8-week group (difference 3·7% [−4·8 to 12·2] vs oral treatment). At week 96, viral suppression was maintained in 47 (84%) of 56 patients receiving oral treatment, 100 (87%) of 115 patients in the 4-week group, and 108 (94%) of 115 patients in the 8-week group. Three patients (1%) experienced protocol-defined virological failure (two in the 8-week group; one in the oral treatment group). Injection-site reactions were mild (3648 [84%] of 4360 injections) or moderate (673 [15%] of 4360 injections) in intensity and rarely resulted in discontinuation (two [<1%] of 230 patients); injection-site pain was reported most frequently. Serious adverse events during maintenance were reported in 22 (10%) of 230 patients in the intramuscular groups (4-week and 8-week groups) and seven (13%) of 56 patients in the oral treatment group; none were drug related. Interpretation The two-drug combination of all-injectable, long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine every 4 weeks or every 8 weeks was as effective as daily three-drug oral therapy at maintaining HIV-1 viral suppression through 96 weeks and was well accepted and tolerated. Funding ViiV Healthcare and Janssen R&D.
V1 王孝忱 声望 1 遗传学和遗传工程系 2018-10-24 05:42:00 上传
Tumour necrosis factor inhibition versus rituximab for patients with rheumatoid arthritis who require biological treatment (ORBIT): an open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority, trial
Summary Background Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition and B-cell depletion are highly effective treatments for active rheumatoid arthritis, but so far no randomised controlled trials have directly compared their safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. This study was done to test the hypothesis that using rituximab would be clinically non-inferior and cheaper compared with TNF inhibitor treatment in biological-treatment naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods This open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial enrolled patients with active, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) from 35 rheumatology departments in the UK. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to the rituximab or TNF inhibitor groups with minimisation to account for methotrexate intolerance using a web-based randomisation system. Patients were given intravenous rituximab 1 g on days 1 and 15, and after 26 weeks if they responded to treatment but had persistent disease activity (28 joint count disease activity score [DAS28-ESR] >3·2; rituximab group) or a TNF inhibitor—adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously every other week) or etanercept (50 mg per week subcutaneously) according to the patient's and rheumatologist's choice (TNF inhibitor group). Patients could switch treatment in the case of drug-related toxic effects or absence or loss of response. The primary outcome measure was the change in DAS28-ESR between 0 and 12 months in the per-protocol population of patients who were assigned to treatment and remained in follow-up to 1 year. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. We also assessed the cost-effectiveness of each strategy. The non-inferiority margin was specified as 0·6 DAS28-ESR units. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01021735. Findings Between April 6, 2009, and Nov 11, 2013, 295 patients were randomly assigned and given either rituximab (n=144) or TNF inhibitor (n=151) treatment. After 12 months, the change in DAS28-ESR for patients assigned to rituximab was −2·6 (SD 1·4) and TNF inhibitor was −2·4 (SD 1·5), with a difference within the prespecified non-inferiority margin of −0·19 (95% CI −0·51 to 0·13; p=0·24). The health-related costs associated with the rituximab strategy were lower than the TNF inhibitor strategy (£9405 vs £11 523 per patient, p<0·0001). 137 (95%) of 144 patients in the rituximab group and 143 (95%) of 151 patients in the TNF inhibitor group had adverse events. 37 serious adverse events occurred in patients receiving rituximab compared with 26 in patients receiving TNF inhibitors, of which 27 were deemed to be possibly, probably, or definitely related to the treatment (15 vs 12, p=0·5462). One patient in each group died during the study. Interpretation Initial treatment with rituximab is non-inferior to initial TNF inhibitor treatment in patients seropositive for rheumatoid arthritis and naive to treatment with biologicals, and is cost saving over 12 months. Funding Arthritis Research UK, Roche.
V2 彭佳楠 声望 1 生物工程 2018-10-24 05:35:02 上传
Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dolutegravir-rilpivirine for the maintenance of virological suppression in adults with HIV-1: phase 3, randomised, non-inferiority SWORD-1 and SWORD-2 studies
Summary Background Lifelong HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) has prompted an interest in two-drug regimens to minimise cumulative drug exposure and toxicities. The safety, tolerability, and efficacy of dolutegravir and rilpivirine suggest potential compatibility and effectiveness as a two-drug regimen. We aimed to investigate this two-drug regimen in a phase 3 study. Methods We identically designed SWORD-1 and SWORD-2, which were open-label, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3, randomised, non-inferiority studies in 12 countries evaluating efficacy and safety of once-daily dolutegravir 50 mg plus rilpivirine 25 mg versus current ART regimen (CAR). We included participants aged 18 years or older who were on first or second ART with stable plasma HIV-1 RNA (viral load <50 copies per mL) for 6 months or longer at screening. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) with stratification by third-agent class, age, and planned participation in a bone mineral density substudy. The primary endpoint was proportion of participants with viral load lower than 50 copies per mL at week 48 among those individuals who received one or more doses of study medication. Investigators monitored adverse events to assess safety. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02429791 (SWORD-1) and NCT02422797 (SWORD-2). Findings We screened for participants from April 14, 2015, to Oct 15, 2015, for SWORD-1 and from April 21, 2015, to Sept 25, 2015, for SWORD-2. We randomly assigned 516 participants to dolutegravir-rilpivirine and 512 to continue with CAR. At week 48 (last patient visit was Nov 22, 2016), in the pooled analysis of the intention-to-treat population, 95% of participants had viral loads lower than 50 copies per mL in each group (486 of 513 in the dolutegravir-rilpivirine group vs 485 of 511 in the CAR group), with an adjusted treatment difference of −0·2% (95% CI −3·0 to 2·5) and showed non-inferiority with a predefined margin of −8%. 395 (77%) of 513 participants in the dolutegravir-rilpivirine group and 364 (71%) of 511 participants in the CAR group reported adverse events. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis (49 [10%] for dolutegravir-rilpivirine vs 50 [10%] for CAR) and headache (41 [8%] vs 23 [5%]). More participants taking dolutegravir-rilpivirine (17 [3%]) reported adverse events leading to withdrawal than did participants taking CAR (three [<1%]). Interpretation Dolutegravir-rilpivirine was non-inferior to CAR over 48 weeks in participants with HIV suppression and showed a safety profile consistent with its components. Results support the use of this two-drug regimen to maintain HIV suppression. Funding ViiV Healthcare and Janssen Pharmaceutica NV.
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